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八年级英语上册课本语法

发布时间:2021-03-15 23:00:48

⑴ 八年级英语上册语法大全人教版 所有语法 所有单元

leavesbbyoneself独自留下某人needn't=don'thaveto不需it's 形容词 todosthmakesbdosth让某人做某事letsbdosth让某人做某事enjoyoneself=haveagoodtime玩得开心tellsb(not)todosth告诉某人做某事asksb(not)todosth询问某人做某事be(not) 形容词 enouth todosthbe too 形容词 todosthtakecareof=lookafter照顾each of固定搭配assoonas一……就want,agree,ask,begin,decided,listen,hope,learn以上词语后跟todosthfinish,enjoy,keep,mind,miss,practise以上词语后跟doingsthstop,forget,remember以上词语后可跟todosth也可跟doingsth。比如“forgettodosth”意思是“忘记去做某事(表示事情还没做)”,“forgetdoingsth”则表示“忘了做过某事(表示事情已经做了)”,如此类推,其余两个用法相同。seesbdoingsth看见某人正在做某事seesbdosth看见过某人做某事makeit 形容词 todosthenjoy/help/teach oneself靠自己reach=getto=arrivein/at注:arrivein表示到达较大的地方,比如一个国家,一座城市等;arriveat表示到达较小的地方,如学校,电影院等。havebeento曾经去过某地(现在已经回来了)havebeenin一直在某地(现在仍在某地)havegoneto去了某地(现在正在去的途中,还没回来)现在完成时:have(has) 动词过去分词lookforwordto 动词ingdivededinto把……分成alittle=abitof一点点too……to 动词原形现在完成时的动词短语变化:began→beoncome/arrive→beherego/leave→beawaybuy→havedie→bedeadborrow→keepjoin→beamember(in)in 一段时间表示将来将来时表达形式:begoingtodosth=willdosth=bedoingsthdoone'sbest=tryone'sbest尽力去做某事afraidto 动词afraidof 名词usetodosth过去常做某事didn'tusetodo=usen'ttodo过去不做某事nolonger=notanylonger现在不做某事fillwith=befullof装满gotobed上床去睡觉gotosleep入睡fallasleep从上床到入睡的全过程(动态)beasleep睡着(静态)on 具体某天的早上/下午/晚上makeoutof用……做出abit 形容词abitof 名词afew(用于可数名词肯定句)few(用于可数名词否定句)alittle(用于不可数名词肯定句)little(用于不可数名词否定句)many(用于可数名词)much(用于不可数名词)bit(可数与不可数两者均可

⑵ 八年级上学期的英语语法总结(全部)!

一、只能修饰可数名词的词语有:
many, many a(n), a good / great many, a (great / large) number of, scores of, dozens of等。例如:
Scores of people went there in the first few days after its opening.
开张后的头几天,很多人去了那儿。
I have been there dozens of times.
我已去过那儿很多次了。
There’re a number of students reading English in the classroom.
教室里有许多学生在读英语。
Many a student has(=many students have)visited the Great Wall.(谓语动词用单数)
很多学生都游览过长城。
In winter, a good many animals sleep under the snow.
冬天很多动物在雪下冬眠。
注意: many所修饰的复数名词前若有限定词,many 后面要接of, 表示“……中的很多”。 例如:
A great many(of the) graates have found jobs.
毕业生中很多人已经找到了工作。
二、只能修饰不可数名词的词语有:
much, a great deal of, a great / large amount of等。例如:
Is there much water in the bucket?
桶里有很多水吗?
He always has a great amount of work to do.
他总是有很多工作要做。
三、既能修饰可数名词又能修饰不可数名词的词语有:
a lot of, lots of, plenty of (以上三个词语后谓语动词的数依of 后的名词的单复数而定),a great / large quantity of (其后谓语用单数),quantities of (其后谓语用复数)。例如:
There is still lots of snow in the garden.
花园里还有许多雪。
There is plenty of rain here.
这儿的雨水很多。
A great quantity of flowers was placed in the hall.
大厅里放了很多鲜花。
There are large quantities of food in the cupboard.
橱柜里有许多食物。
在所有这些表示“很多”的词语中many, much 是最常用的词,它们既可以用于肯定句,也可以用于疑问句和否定句。例如:
Are there many people in the street?
街上有很多人吗?
There isn’t much time left.
剩下的时间不多了。
其它的词语都用于肯定句,日常会话中常用lots of, a lot of 或plenty of; 正式文体中常用 a great many, a (large) number of, a great deal of, scores of 或 dozens of 等。但若肯定句中有too, so, as, very或how 等词修饰时,则必须使用 many, much。例如:
The number of the people who lost their homes reached as many as 250,000.
无家可归的人数多达250,000人。
There is too much work to do.
要做的工作太多了。

或者是这样的,你自己看下,哪Unit 1 How often do you exercise?
Grammar: 特殊疑问句:wh-questions: what, who, where, when, which, whose, why, whom等。
特殊疑问句的构成及用法:
结构:特殊疑问词+ 一般疑问句, 即:特殊疑问词+be/助动词/情态动词+主语+谓语/表语(+其他)
疑问代词:
1) Who:谁。做主语,用来指人 Who is the boy under the tree?
2)Whom 谁,做宾语,用来指人 Whom are you writing to?
3) Whose 谁的,用来指所属关系,如果做定语,一般后接名词 Whose pen is this?
4) Which 哪个,哪些,用来指对人或物在一定范围之内进行选择 Which grils will in the sports meeting? Which pen is Lily’s?
5)What什么,通常指物,也可指人,一般用在没有指出范围的情况下 What can you see in the picture? What are you doing now?
疑问副词:
When:何时,询问时间 When will she come back?
Where何地,询问地点, Where do you come from?
Why为什么,询问原因, Why are you late for school?
How 如何,询问手段、方式、工具以及程度等 How do you usually go to school?
How old多大,询问年龄,How old is Jim’s little brother?
How many/much多少,询问数量 How many birds are there in the tree?
How far多远,询问距离, How far is it form your home to school?
How long多长,多久,询问时间的长度或距离 How long will you stay in Beijing?
How often多长时间按一次,询问频率 How often do you go to see your grandparents?
How soon多久,询问时间 How soon will you come back?
频率副词:表示动作发生的频率,never, sometimes, often, usually, always.
Unit 2 What’s the matter with you?
Grammar:
1. 用have 来描述身体不适 have/have got a +疾病名字;得了……病
2.情态动词should,情态动词should,can, may, must没有人称和时态的变化,后接动词原形
Unit 3 What are you doing for vacation?
Grammar:现在进行时表将来 一般将来时
表示将要做某事或计划打算做某事要用到句型“be+doing”其中be是助动词,它有人称和单复数的变化。Be: am, is, are. be + v.ing是现在进行时的形式,但用于表示将来。用进行时表将来,常用于表示即将来临的未来预定要做的事情,一般指个人计划要做的事。用于此情况的动词一般是表示位置转移的动词,如,go, come, leave, start, arrive, move等。
一.肯定句中,结构为“be+doing.”
I am going shopping this afternoon.
二.否定句是在be之后加not. I’m not going to shopping this afternoon.
三.一般疑问句是将be置于句首 Are you going shopping this afternoon?—Yes, I am/ we are. No, I’m not./ We aren’t.
四.特殊疑问句“疑问词+一般疑问句语序。”
What are you doing for vacation? When is he going camping?
Who are you going there with? Where is she going?

Unit 4 How do you get to school?
Grammar: How引导的特殊疑问句:是指以How, how far, how long, how old,how many, how much等词开头的疑问句。
How does he get to shool?---- He takes the train to get to shool.
How long does it take to walk? ----It takes about 35 minutes to walk.
How far is it from your home to school? It’s four miles from my home to school.
How old is he now? She is twelve years old now.
How many storybooks do you have? I have five storybooks.
How much is this coat? This coat is 200 yuan.
特殊疑问句的简略结构:how about…?+ 名词或动词-ing形式,用于提出建议、请求或征求意见、询问消息等。如:How about playing tennis?
Unit 5 Can you come to my party?
Grammar:情态动词can及邀请句式及其问答
情态动词can的用法:
Can 是最长用的情态动词,其后跟动词原形,can的否定形式为cannot,can’t.
can表“能力”,意思是:能,会 I can paly basketball,but I can’t swim.
can表示能力时可和be able to 互换,be able to有更多的时态,常被用来表示can所 不能表示的将来或完成的概念。E.g. They will be able to run this machine on their own in three months.
表示“可能性”,意思是:可以,可能。That big cinema can seat 5,000 people.
表示允许,意思是可以能够 You can have the book when I have finished it.
表示“惊讶、不相信等(用于疑问句、否定句或感叹句中”。意思是“会、可能。”
This can’t be true. Can it be true?
如何发出、接受和谢绝别人的邀请
表达邀请的常用句型:
Can you come to…?
Could you come to…?
Would you like to come to…?
Do you want to come to…?
接受邀请的常用句型:
Sure. Certainly. OK. I’d love to.
谢绝邀请的常用句型:
I’m sorry, I can’t. I have to…
I’m afraid I can’t. I have to…
I don’t think I can. I have to…
Unit 6 I’m more outgoing than my sister.
Grammar:形容词的比较级
规则变化、不规则变化(课本P93)
than 是比较级中最常见的标志词,意思是“比”。用于引出比较的对象。1.He draws better than me.2.You’re older than I am. You are older than me.
形容词比较级前,有时可以用much,far, a little,a bit, even, three times等词来修饰。Much 和far表示“……得多”,much better好得多,a little, a bit表示稍微,一些,一点。a little shorter, 稍微矮点;even表示“甚至,更加,还要……”even bigger还要大些,three times表示 “…三倍”,如three times bigger than 比……大三倍
Very绝不可以用来修饰比较级,very,so,too, quite 修饰原级
Unit 7 How do you make banana milk shake?
Grammar: 可数名词与不可数名词
一.可数名词
英语中的物质名词大体上可分为可数名词和不可数名词。可数名词指物体的数量可数。其单数形式可在名词前加a或an,表示一个,如a pear. 其负数形式要在词尾加-s,或-es(特殊情况除外),如two bananas, three tomatoes. Many many apples a few students few bags
二.不可数名词
1.不可数名词指物体的数量不可数。不可数名词没有单复数之分,也不能在词前直接加冠词a 或an.表示不可数名词的数量时可在不可数名词前加相应的由量词构成的短语。如a bag of… 2.常见的量词短语有:
a piece of… a cup of… a teaspoon of… a bottle of…
3.不可数名词还可以用下面的词表示数量:much much rain a little little
4.既可以修饰不可数名词又可以修饰不可数名词的词有:
Lots of= a lot of许多,大量 some一些(用于肯定句)any一些(用于否定句和一般疑问句)
Unit 8 How was your school trip?
Grammar:
一般过去时:指在过去某一时间内发生的动作或存在的状态,常和表示过去意义的时间状语连用。如:yesterday, last year(week,month…),two years ago, in2006等。有时也可用when,after,before, as soon as引导的时间状语从句。该时态在句中的体现是谓语动词用过去式。谓语be动词→was/were 否定:wasn’t /weren’t
Be动词句型
一般疑问句:was/were +主语…
特殊疑问句:疑问词+was/were+主语
陈述句:主语+was/were+…(肯定句) 否定句:主语+wasn’t/weren’t+…
行为动词句型(当句中的动词为行为动词时,要借助动词did构成一般疑问句和否定句)
肯定式:主语+动词过去式
否定式:主语+didn’t+动词原形
一般疑问句:Did +主语+动词原形
特殊疑问句:Did+主语+动词原形
Unit 9 When was he born?
Grammar: 一般过去时的特殊疑问句
一般过去时的特殊疑问句的变法同一般现在时一样,不同之处在于须将be动词或助动词改为过去时态,即“特殊疑问词+were或was(第三人称单数)+主语+(表语)+其他成分”或“特殊疑问词+助动词did+主语+实义动词+其他成分。”
以when引导的特殊疑问句,对某人的出生年月进行提问,句型是:
When was/were…born? … was/were born in +时间
When was David beckham born? 大卫.贝克汉姆是什么时候出生的?He was born in 1975.
二.以how long 引导的特殊疑问句,对表示某一短时间的状语进行提问。句型是:
How long did + 主语+动词?
How long did Charles Smith hiccup? He hiccupped for 69 years and 5 months.
三.When did he start hiccupping? 他什么时候开始打嗝?When +did+主语+动词?
Unit 10 I’m going to be a basketball player.
Grammar:一般将来时
表示将来某个时间要发生的动作或存在的状态,也表示将来经常或反复发生的动作,常与表示将来的时间状语连用。
1. be going to + 动词原形 What are you going to do next Sunday?
2. will/shall + 动词原形 I will go to my hometown next week.
3.be +v.ing The Greens are moving to another city the day after tomorrow.
4. be +动词不定式 You are to be back by 10 o’clock.
5. be + about + 动词不定式 The meeting is about to begin.
Unit 11 Could you please clean your room?
Grammar:情态动词
情态动词,表示说话者对某一动作的看法和态度,包括可能、怀疑、允许、愿望、必要、猜测等。Can(能、会),may( 可以),must( 必须、一定)等。
情态动词的特点:(1)情态动词有一定词义,但不能单独作谓语,必须和另一个动词原形一起构成谓语,且没有人称和数的变化。1. I can speak English. 2. She must be a teacher. 3. We may go home now.
(2)变否定句时,直接在情态动词后面加not,无需加助动词。He can’t play the guitar well.
He can’t answer the question. You mustn’t be late.
(3)含有情态动词的句子变一般疑问句时,须将情态动词提前。Can you help me? Must I go there at once?
(4)can 可表示能力、允许、可能性、怀疑猜测,意为“能,会,可以。”can’t, 意为“不能,不会,不可以。”,还有“不可能”之意。
--Can you drive? – Sorry, I can’t. It can’t be true.
(5)can 也可表示请求与邀请
Can you please sweep the floor?
Unit12 What’s the best radio station?
Grammar:形容词/副词的最高级,用于三者或三者以上的人或事物之间的比较,表示在一群人或事物中,其中一个 “最……”见课本p93语法
the +最高级 She is the tallest of all her classmates.
最高级可被序数词以及much, by far,nearly,almost, by no means, not quite,not really, nothing like等修饰。This hat is by far the biggest.
表示最高程度的形容词,excellent, extreme, prefect等没有最高级也不能用比较级。He is an excellent teacher.
形容词最高级间修饰做表语或介词并与的名词代词是,被修饰的词往往省略。
He is the youngest (boy) in his class.
Who/Which +be+最高级,A,B,or C? Who is the most useful, a bicycle, a motorcycle,or a car?
the +序数词+最高级 He is the second tallest student in our class.
One of the +最高级+复数名词 The Yellow River is one of the longest rivers in China.个完整你选择哪个吧!

⑶ 新目标八年级上册英语每单元课文与语法

动词
一. 动词是表示动作或处于某种状态的词,它分为行为动词,系动词、助动词和情态动词,动词种类多,变化又复杂,是学习英语的难点之一,下面根据动词的特点进行归类,并提供一些辨别方法,以便于理解和掌握。
1. 行为动词在动词中数量最多,它含有实在的意义(又叫实义动词),表示动作或状态,在句中可以单独作谓语,行为动词又分为及物动词和不及物动词,及物动词后面必须加宾语,意义才完整,不及物动词后面不能直接带宾语,常需要在宾语前加介词才能带宾语。
eg:
We study English very hard.
She has a book in her hand.
The sun rises in the east.
2. 连系动词本身有一定词义,但不能独立作谓语,必须与表语一起构成谓语,常见的连系动词有:be, look, sound, get, become等。
eg:
My parents are both farmers.
The milk tastes terrible.
The song sounds good.
3. 助动词本身无词义,不能独立作谓语,必须和主要动词构成谓语,表示疑问,否定,时态或其它语法形式。常见的助动词有:be, have, do, will, shall等。
eg:
Do you have a brother?
Have you got an English-Chinese dictionary?
I didn’t go to the cinema yesterday.
4. 情态动词本身有词义,但不能独立作谓语,只能和主要动词一起构成谓语,表示说话者的语气和情态,情态动词没有人称和数的变化,情态动词本身可以构成疑问和否定,常见的情态动词有:can, may, must, will, shall, need等。
eg: Can you sing the English song?
Everyone must get to school on time.

二. 动词的时态:
(一)时态概述:作谓语的动词用来表示动作(情况)发生时间的各种形式称为时态,英语中的时态,就是通过特殊的动词词尾或加一些相关的助动词be, have(has)等,用来表示动作或事件发生的不同时间和方面。
eg: He reads newspapers every day.
He read the newspaper yesterday.
He is going to read the newspaper tomorrow.

(二)一般现在时:
1. 动词变化:一般现在时主要用动词原形表示,但第三人称单数后要加词尾-s,另外be和have有特殊的人称形式。
在加词尾-s时要注意:
情况 加法 例词
一般情况 加-s reads, writes, says
以ch, sh, s, x, 或o收尾的词 加-es teaches, washes, guesses, fixes, goes
以“辅音字母+y”结尾的词 变y为i再加-es try-tries
carry-carries
读音:
情况 读法 例词
在[p][t][k][f]等清辅音后 〔s〕 helps, hates, asks, laughs
在[s][z][ ][t ][d3]等音后 〔iz〕 faces, rises, wishes, watches, urges
在其他情况下 〔z〕 plans, cries, shows

2. 一般现在时主要表示:
(1)经常性或习惯性的动作,常与这样的时间状语连用:always, often, usually, sometimes等
eg: We always help each other.
It often snows in winter.
I get up early every morning.
(2)表示主语现在的特征、性格、能力等。
eg: He loves sports.
Jane is an outgoing girl.
Tom and Tim both have medium height.
(3)表示客观、普遍真理
eg:
Two and four makes six.
Water boils at 100℃
The moon moves round the earth.
3. 一般现在时的疑问句一般以在句首加助动词do,does的方式构成。第三人称单数加does,其他加do,这时动词一概用原形;动词be只需与主语位置对调就行了。
eg: Do you like English?
Do they have story books?
What does she do every evening?
Is she at home?
Are you good at English?
4. 一般现在时的否定式是do not(don’t)或does not (doesn’t)+动词原形来构成的,be动词做谓语动词只需在be后加not构成否定。
eg:
I don’t like oranges at all.
She doesn’t work in the TV station.
They aren’t students.
I’m not busy every weekend.

三. 现在进行时:
1. 动词变化:现在进行时由“am /is /are+动词现在分词”构成。加-ing的规则如下:
(1)一般在动词原形末尾加-ing。如:
stay-staying do-doing
listen-listening suffer-suffering
work-working spend-spending
look-looking
(2)以不发音的字母e结尾的动词,先去掉e,再加-ing。如:
make-making take-taking
give-giving ride-riding
please-pleasing refuse-refusing
close-closing operate-operating
(3)以一个辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节词,先双写这个辅音字母,再加-ing。如:
put-putting sit-sitting
run-running win-winning
begin-beginning
2. 现在进行时的用法
(1)表示说话时正在进行或发生的动作,这时可以不用时间状语,也可以和now, at present, at the moment等时间状语连用。有时用一个动词,如look(看),listen(听)。
eg: What are you reading now?
Listen! Someone is singing in the classroom.
(2)表示当前一段时期的活动或现阶段正在进行的动作。
eg: They are working in a factory these days.
More and more people are giving up smoking.
(3)表示最近按计划或安排要进行的动作。
现在进行时有时可表示一个在最近按计划或安排要进行的动作,即可以用来代替将来时。
eg: When are you leaving?
Are you going to Tibet tomorrow?
3. 现在进行时的否定句和疑问句比较简单。否定句在be(am, is, are)后面加not;疑问句把be动词移到主语前。
eg:
I am not working.
What are you reading now?
How are you feeling today?
The train isn’t arriving soon.

四. 一般过去时:
1. 动词变化:一般过去时主要表示过去的动作或状态,在句中由主语+动词的过去式来表达。
构成规则 原形 过去式
一般在动词末尾加-ed work
plant
play worked
planted
played
结尾是e的动词在末尾加-d like
live
change liked
lived
changed
末尾只有一个辅音字母的重读闭音节词,先双写这个辅音字母,再加-ed plan(计划)
stop
drop planned
stopped
dropped
以辅音字母加y结尾的,先变y为i再加-ed carry
study
cry carried
studied
cried

否定式 疑问式 否定疑问式 简单回答
I did not work. Did I work? Did I not work? Yes, you did.
No, you didn’t.
You did not work. Did you work? Did you not work? Yes, I did.
No, I didn’t.
He / She / It did not work. Did he / she / it work? Did he / she / it not work? Yes, he / she / it /did.
No, he /she /it didn’t.
We did not work. Did we work? Did we not work? Yes, you did.
No, you didn’t.
You did not work. Did you work? Did you not work? Yes, we did.
No, we didn’t.
They did not work. Did they work? Did you they not work? Yes, they did.
No, they didn’t.
2. 一般过去时的基本用法:
(1)带有确定的过去时间状语时,要用过去时。(eg: yesterday, last year, just now, two days ago, in the old days等)
eg: He left just now.
Lei Feng was a good soldier.
What did you have for breakfast this morning?
(2)表示过去某一段时间内经常或反复发生的动作,这时常和表示频度的状语连用。
eg: Last term we often did experiments.
He always went to work by bus.
五. be going to 表示一般将来
1. 用法:表示现在打算在最近或将来要做的事,或表示说话人根据已有的迹象认为很有可能要发生的事情,be随着人称的变化变成(am, is, are)
eg: We are going to have a new subject this year.
It’s going to rain this afternoon.
I’m going to be a pilot when I grow up.
2. be going to 的否定句在be动词后加上not;be going to 的疑问句把be动词移到主语前。
eg:
He isn’t going to see his brother tomorrow.
I’m not going to tell you about it.
Who’s going to use it?
Is your sister going to bring your lunch?
What are you going to do next Sunday.

【模拟试题】(答题时间:70分钟)
一. 改错:
例1:The rose dark red. →The rose is dark red.
1. He very likes swimming.
2. He can helps you.
3. We haven’t a good time.
4. What are you do after school every day?
5. Sometimes I listen music. sometimes I play outside.
6. The fish smells not good.
7. We should buy some chicken. There are little left.
8. There have many birds in the sky.
9. My mother’s glasses is broken.
10. A pair of shoes are nearly one thousand.
11. What colour are her hair?
12. Does he his homework?
13. A: Do you like your class?
B: Yes. I like.
14. He always do his shopping on Friday evening.
15. I very sorry I forgot your birthday.
16. I have no brother and sister.

二. 连词组句:
1. listen, morning, the, to, I, radio, the, in, often
2. of, men, nurses, good, sick, hospital, care, in, take, the
3. weekdays, he, the, goes, cinema, never, ring, the, to
4. computer, got, new, you, a, have?
5. weekends, he, rest, does, a, got, have, on?
6. good, Li Ming, do, and, often, I deeds
7. museum, they, the, often, science, visit, how, do?
8. the, in, any, there, kitchen, food, is?
9. homework, does, day, when, Tom, his, every, where, and, do?
10. a, there, vegetables, many, but, apples, aren’t, lot, there, of, are, there

三. 用括号里的动词的适当形式填空:
1. There (be)______some glasses on it.
2. He (go)______to the park every day.
3. My uncle (live)______ in Nanjing now.
4. ______ Lucy and Lily (like)______China?
5. Li Lei(not like)______ to drink orange soda.
6. The girl (go)______ home at 4:30 in the afternoon.
7. ______ Kate (speak)______ French? Yes, she does.
8. Jim (not ride)______his bike often.
9. If he (be)______ free tomorrow, he (go)______ with us.
10. As soon as they (get)______ there next month, he (call)______me.
11. ______Li Ming’s father (have)______ his lunch at home?
12. Tom (not do)______the morning exercises often.
13. I (be)______ hungry and my sister (be)______ thirsty.
14. The baby (have)______ curly hair.
15. Everybody (have)______ a chance to win.
16. I (clean)______ my room once a week.
17. Nobody(tell)______ them anything.
18. There (be)______ a lot of chicken on the plate.
19. Mr. Li (teach)______ the second grade.
20. The boy (watch)______ TV every evening.
21. Mary (play)______the violin quite well.
22. David (study)______Chinese and I (study)______ English.
23. The game (be)______ interesting.
24. Many children (be)______ on the playground.
25. He (have)_______ a good time at your party.
26. I (have)______ a new bicycle.

四. 用所给词的适当形式填空:
1. Tom and his father ______(swim)now.
2. Look! They ______(run)along the street.
3. We ______(practice)hard these days because we will have a big match next month.
4. What ______he ______(do)at nine o’clock last night?
5. They ______(listen)to the music at that time.
6. When the headmaster came in, the students______(read)the text.
7. We ______(watch)TV when suddenly the telephone rang.
8. She ______(make)the paper flowers the whole night.
9. A: _______ you ______(studying)English?
B: Yes, I am.
10. Let’s go out. It ______(not rain)now.
11. Hurry up! Everybody ______(wait)for you.
12. A: ______(you / listen)to the radio?
B: No, You can turn it off.
13. I ______(watch)TV at seven o’clock yesterday evening.
14. A: What ______(you / look)for?
B: I ______(look)for my wallet. There is something important in it.
15. Look. It ______(rain)hard. We’ll get wet if we go out.

五. 选词填空:
(一)选词填空:
1. I ______(am, is, was, were)busy last week.
2. Tom and I ______(am, are, was, were)late for school yesterday.
3. I ______(walk, walks, walked, walking)to school the other day.
4. Rose ______(does not, didn’t, has been, has to)visit her uncle the month before last(month)
5. There ______(is, was, are, were)a lot of people in this village ten years ago.
6. Mother ______(am, is, was, were)ill in bed last night.
7. It ______(rain, rains, rained, raining)a lot last year.
(二)用括号中动词的适当形式填空:
1. My uncle in London ______(send)a birthday present to me yesterday.
2. When ______(be)you born?
3. As soon as he arrived in the country, he ______(phone)me.
4. When I ______(knock)at his door, he was cooking.
5. We were watching TV when the light ______(go)out.
6. He said he ______(not like)maths at all.
(三)用括当的词完成下列句子。
1. ______you make this cake last night? Yes. I did. I _______it for you.
2. Did Tom _______ home at five yesterday?
No, he _______. He came home at six.
3. What _______ you _______ at the store? I bought a camera.
4. Were you at home yesterday? Yes, I _______.
5. Where did you catch the fish? I _______ it in the river near my house.

六. 完成下列句子:
1. 你长大了想当什么?我打算当个电脑程序员。
What _____ you ______ ______ _______ when you ______ _______?
I’m ______ to _______ a _______ _______.
2. 你哥哥长大了打算当什么?他打算当个专业的篮球运动员。
What _____ your brother _____ _________ ______ when he ______ _______?
He’s _____ to ______ a _______ _________ player.
3. 你打算怎么做?我打算学计算机学。
_____ are you ______ ________ ________ that?
I’m _____ _______ _______ computer _______.
4. 你哥哥打算怎么做?他打算每天练篮球。
_____ is your brother _____ _____ _____?
He’s _____ ______ _________ basketball every day.
5. 她打算下学期上一些表演课吗?是的。
______ she ______ _______ _________ some ______ lessons?
Yes, she ________.

【试题答案】
1. He likes swimming.
2. He can help you.
3. We don’t have a good time.
4. What do you do after school every day?
5. Sometimes I listen to music, sometimes I play outside.
6. The fish doesn’t smell good.
7. We should buy some chicken. There is little left.
8. There are many birds in the sky.
9. My mother’s glasses are broken.
10. A pair of shoes is nearly one thousand.
11. If he doesn’t feel well he will go to visit the History Museum.
12. What colour is her hair?
13. Does he do his homework?
14. A: Do you like your class?
B: Yes. I do.
15. He always does his shopping on Friday evening.
16. I am sorry I forgot your birthday.
二.
1. I often listen to the radio in the morning.
2. Nurses take good care of sick men in the hospital.
3. He never goes to the cinema ring the weekdays.
4. Have you got a new computer?
5. Does he have a rest on weekends?
6. Li Ming and I often do good deeds.
7. How often do you visit the science museum?
8. Is there any food in the kitchen?
9. When and where does Tom do his homework every day?
10. There are a lot of vegetables but there aren’t many apples there.
Or: There are a lot of apples but there aren’t many vegetables there.
三. 1. are 2. goes 3. lives 4. Do, like 5. doesn’t like
6. goes 7. Does, speak 8. doesn’t ride
9. is, will go 10. get, will call 11. Does, have
12. doesn’t do 13. am, is 14. has
15. has 16. clean 17. tells 18. is
19. teaches 20. watches 21. plays 22. studies, study
23. is 24. are 25. has 26. have
四. 1. are swimming 2. are running 3. are practicing
4. was, doing 5. were listening 6. were reading
7. were watching 8. was making 9. Are, studying
10. isn’t raining 11. is waiting 12. Are you listening
13. was watching 14. are you looking, am looking
15. is raining
五.
(一)1. was 2. were 3. walked 4. did not
5. were 6. was 7. rained
(二)1. sent 2. were 3. phoned 4. knocked 5. went
6. didn’t like
(三)1. Did, made 2. come, didn’t 3. did, buy 4. was
5. caught
六.
1. are, going, to, be, grow, up, going, be, computer, programmer
2. is, going, to, be, grows, up, going, be, professional, basketball.
3. How, going, to, do, going, to, study, science
4. How, going, to, do, that, going, to, play
5. Is, going, to, take, acting, is

⑷ 八年级上册英语语法

Unit 1 How often do you exercise?
Grammar: 特殊疑问句:wh-questions: what, who, where, when, which, whose, why, whom等。
特殊疑问句的构成及用法:
结构:特殊疑问词+ 一般疑问句, 即:特殊疑问词+be/助动词/情态动词+主语+谓语/表语(+其他)
疑问代词:
1) Who:谁。做主语,用来指人 Who is the boy under the tree?
2)Whom 谁,做宾语,用来指人 Whom are you writing to?
3) Whose 谁的,用来指所属关系,如果做定语,一般后接名词 Whose pen is this?
4) Which 哪个,哪些,用来指对人或物在一定范围之内进行选择 Which grils will in the sports meeting? Which pen is Lily’s?
5)What什么,通常指物,也可指人,一般用在没有指出范围的情况下 What can you see in the picture? What are you doing now?
疑问副词:
When:何时,询问时间 When will she come back?
Where何地,询问地点, Where do you come from?
Why为什么,询问原因, Why are you late for school?
How 如何,询问手段、方式、工具以及程度等 How do you usually go to school?
How old多大,询问年龄,How old is Jim’s little brother?
How many/much多少,询问数量 How many birds are there in the tree?
How far多远,询问距离, How far is it form your home to school?
How long多长,多久,询问时间的长度或距离 How long will you stay in Beijing?
How often多长时间按一次,询问频率 How often do you go to see your grandparents?
How soon多久,询问时间 How soon will you come back?
频率副词:表示动作发生的频率,never, sometimes, often, usually, always.
Unit 2 What’s the matter with you?
Grammar:
1. 用have来描述身体不适 have/have got a +疾病名字;得了……病
2.情态动词should,情态动词should,can, may, must没有人称和时态的变化,后接动词原形
Unit 3 What are you doing for vacation?
Grammar:现在进行时表将来 一般将来时
表示将要做某事或计划打算做某事要用到句型“be+doing”其中be是助动词,它有人称和单复数的变化。Be: am, is, are. be + v.ing是现在进行时的形式,但用于表示将来。用进行时表将来,常用于表示即将来临的未来预定要做的事情,一般指个人计划要做的事。用于此情况的动词一般是表示位置转移的动词,如,go, come, leave, start, arrive, move等。
一.肯定句中,结构为“be+doing.”
I am going shopping this afternoon.
二.否定句是在be之后加not. I’m not going to shopping this afternoon.
三.一般疑问句是将be置于句首 Are you going shopping this afternoon?—Yes, I am/ we are. No, I’m not./ We aren’t.
四.特殊疑问句“疑问词+一般疑问句语序。”
What are you doing for vacation? When is he going camping?
Who are you going there with? Where is she going?

Unit 4 How do you get to school?
Grammar: How引导的特殊疑问句:是指以How, how far, how long, how old,how many, how much等词开头的疑问句。
How does he get to shool?---- He takes the train to get to shool.
How long does it take to walk? ----It takes about 35 minutes to walk.
How far is it from your home to school? It’s four miles from my home to school.
How old is he now? She is twelve years old now.
How many storybooks do you have? I have five storybooks.
How much is this coat? This coat is 200 yuan.
特殊疑问句的简略结构:how about…?+ 名词或动词-ing形式,用于提出建议、请求或征求意见、询问消息等。如:How about playing tennis?
Unit 5 Can you come to my party?
Grammar:情态动词can及邀请句式及其问答
情态动词can的用法:
Can 是最长用的情态动词,其后跟动词原形,can的否定形式为cannot,can’t.
can表“能力”,意思是:能,会 I can paly basketball,but I can’t swim.
can表示能力时可和be able to 互换,be able to有更多的时态,常被用来表示can所 不能表示的将来或完成的概念。E.g. They will be able to run this machine on their own in three months.
表示“可能性”,意思是:可以,可能。That big cinema can seat 5,000 people.
表示允许,意思是可以能够 You can have the book when I have finished it.
表示“惊讶、不相信等(用于疑问句、否定句或感叹句中”。意思是“会、可能。”
This can’t be true. Can it be true?
如何发出、接受和谢绝别人的邀请
表达邀请的常用句型:
Can you come to…?
Could you come to…?
Would you like to come to…?
Do you want to come to…?
接受邀请的常用句型:
Sure. Certainly. OK. I’d love to.
谢绝邀请的常用句型:
I’m sorry, I can’t. I have to…
I’m afraid I can’t. I have to…
I don’t think I can. I have to…
Unit 6 I’m more outgoing than my sister.
Grammar:形容词的比较级
规则变化、不规则变化(课本P93)
than 是比较级中最常见的标志词,意思是“比”。用于引出比较的对象。1.He draws better than me.2.You’re older than I am. You are older than me.
形容词比较级前,有时可以用much,far, a little,a bit, even, three times等词来修饰。Much 和far表示“……得多”,much better好得多,a little, a bit表示稍微,一些,一点。a little shorter, 稍微矮点;even表示“甚至,更加,还要……”even bigger还要大些,three times表示 “…三倍”,如three times bigger than 比……大三倍
Very绝不可以用来修饰比较级,very,so,too, quite修饰原级
Unit 7 How do you make banana milk shake?
Grammar: 可数名词与不可数名词
一.可数名词
英语中的物质名词大体上可分为可数名词和不可数名词。可数名词指物体的数量可数。其单数形式可在名词前加a或an,表示一个,如a pear. 其负数形式要在词尾加-s,或-es(特殊情况除外),如two bananas, three tomatoes. Many many apples a few students few bags
二.不可数名词
1.不可数名词指物体的数量不可数。不可数名词没有单复数之分,也不能在词前直接加冠词a 或an.表示不可数名词的数量时可在不可数名词前加相应的由量词构成的短语。如a bag of… 2.常见的量词短语有:
a piece of… a cup of… a teaspoon of… a bottle of…
3.不可数名词还可以用下面的词表示数量:much much rain a little little
4.既可以修饰不可数名词又可以修饰不可数名词的词有:
Lots of= a lot of许多,大量 some一些(用于肯定句)any一些(用于否定句和一般疑问句)
Unit 8 How was your school trip?
Grammar:
一般过去时:指在过去某一时间内发生的动作或存在的状态,常和表示过去意义的时间状语连用。如:yesterday, last year(week,month…),two years ago, in2006等。有时也可用when,after,before, as soon as引导的时间状语从句。该时态在句中的体现是谓语动词用过去式。谓语be动词→was/were 否定:wasn’t /weren’t
Be动词句型
一般疑问句:was/were +主语…
特殊疑问句:疑问词+was/were+主语
陈述句:主语+was/were+…(肯定句) 否定句:主语+wasn’t/weren’t+…
行为动词句型(当句中的动词为行为动词时,要借助动词did构成一般疑问句和否定句)
肯定式:主语+动词过去式
否定式:主语+didn’t+动词原形
一般疑问句:Did +主语+动词原形
特殊疑问句:Did+主语+动词原形
Unit 9 When was he born?
Grammar: 一般过去时的特殊疑问句
一般过去时的特殊疑问句的变法同一般现在时一样,不同之处在于须将be动词或助动词改为过去时态,即“特殊疑问词+were或was(第三人称单数)+主语+(表语)+其他成分”或“特殊疑问词+助动词did+主语+实义动词+其他成分。”
以when引导的特殊疑问句,对某人的出生年月进行提问,句型是:
When was/were…born? … was/were born in +时间
When was David beckham born? 大卫.贝克汉姆是什么时候出生的?He was born in 1975.
二.以how long 引导的特殊疑问句,对表示某一短时间的状语进行提问。句型是:
How long did + 主语+动词?
How long did Charles Smith hiccup? He hiccupped for 69 years and 5 months.
三.When did he start hiccupping? 他什么时候开始打嗝?When +did+主语+动词?
Unit 10 I’m going to be a basketball player.
Grammar:一般将来时
表示将来某个时间要发生的动作或存在的状态,也表示将来经常或反复发生的动作,常与表示将来的时间状语连用。
1. be going to + 动词原形 What are you going to do next Sunday?
2. will/shall + 动词原形 I will go to my hometown next week.
3.be +v.ing The Greens are moving to another city the day after tomorrow.
4. be +动词不定式 You are to be back by 10 o’clock.
5. be + about + 动词不定式 The meeting is about to begin.
Unit 11 Could you please clean your room?
Grammar:情态动词
情态动词,表示说话者对某一动作的看法和态度,包括可能、怀疑、允许、愿望、必要、猜测等。Can(能、会),may( 可以),must( 必须、一定)等。
情态动词的特点:(1)情态动词有一定词义,但不能单独作谓语,必须和另一个动词原形一起构成谓语,且没有人称和数的变化。1. I can speak English. 2. She must be a teacher. 3. We may go home now.
(2)变否定句时,直接在情态动词后面加not,无需加助动词。He can’t play the guitar well.
He can’t answer the question. You mustn’t be late.
(3)含有情态动词的句子变一般疑问句时,须将情态动词提前。Can you help me? Must I go there at once?
(4)can 可表示能力、允许、可能性、怀疑猜测,意为“能,会,可以。”can’t, 意为“不能,不会,不可以。”,还有“不可能”之意。
--Can you drive? – Sorry, I can’t. It can’t be true.
(5)can 也可表示请求与邀请
Can you please sweep the floor?
Unit12 What’s the best radio station?
Grammar:形容词/副词的最高级,用于三者或三者以上的人或事物之间的比较,表示在一群人或事物中,其中一个 “最……”见课本p93语法
the +最高级 She is the tallest of all her classmates.
最高级可被序数词以及much, by far,nearly,almost, by no means, not quite,not really, nothing like等修饰。This hat is by far the biggest.
表示最高程度的形容词,excellent, extreme, prefect等没有最高级也不能用比较级。He is an excellent teacher.
形容词最高级间修饰做表语或介词并与的名词代词是,被修饰的词往往省略。
He is the youngest (boy) in his class.
Who/Which +be+最高级,A,B,or C? Who is the most useful, a bicycle, a motorcycle,or a car?
the +序数词+最高级 He is the second tallest student in our class.
One of the +最高级+复数名词 The Yellow River is one of the longest rivers in China.

⑸ 八年级上册英语语法

记得采纳O(∩_∩)O哈!

现在进行时
过去式
比较级
最高级

Unit 1 How often do you exercise?
Grammar: 特殊疑问句:-questions: what, who, where, when, which, whose, why, whom等。
特殊疑问句的构成及用法:
结构:特殊疑问词+ 一般疑问句, 即:特殊疑问词+be/助动词/情态动词+主语+谓语/表语(+其他)
疑问代词:
1) Who:谁。做主语,用来指人 Who is the boy under the tree?
2)Whom 谁,做宾语,用来指人 Whom are you writing to?
3) Whose 谁的,用来指所属关系,如果做定语,一般后接名词 Whose pen is this?
4) Which 哪个,哪些,用来指对人或物在一定范围之内进行选择 Which grils will in the sports meeting? Which pen is Lily’s?
5)What什么,通常指物,也可指人,一般用在没有指出范围的情况下 What can you see in the picture? What are you doing now?
疑问副词:
When:何时,询问时间 When will she come back?
Where何地,询问地点, Where do you come from?
Why为什么,询问原因, Why are you late for school?
How 如何,询问手段、方式、工具以及程度等 How do you usually go to school?
How old多大,询问年龄,How old is Jim’s little brother?
How many/much多少,询问数量 How many birds are there in the tree?
How far多远,询问距离, How far is it form your home to school?
How long多长,多久,询问时间的长度或距离 How long will you stay in Beijing?
How often多长时间按一次,询问频率 How often do you go to see your grandparents?
How soon多久,询问时间 How soon will you come back?
频率副词:表示动作发生的频率,never, sometimes, often, usually, always.
Unit 2 What’s the matter with you?
Grammar:
1. 用have 来描述身体不适 have/have got a +疾病名字;得了……病
2.情态动词should,情态动词should,can, may, must没有人称和时态的变化,后接动词原形
Unit 3 What are you doing for vacation?
Grammar:现在进行时表将来 一般将来时
表示将要做某事或计划打算做某事要用到句型“be+doing”其中be是助动词,它有人称和单复数的变化。Be: am, is, are. be + v.ing是现在进行时的形式,但用于表示将来。用进行时表将来,常用于表示即将来临的未来预定要做的事情,一般指个人计划要做的事。用于此情况的动词一般是表示位置转移的动词,如,go, come, leave, start, arrive, move等。
一.肯定句中,结构为“be+doing.”
I am going shopping this afternoon.
二.否定句是在be之后加not. I’m not going to shopping this afternoon.
三.一般疑问句是将be置于句首 Are you going shopping this afternoon?—Yes, I am/ we are. No, I’m not./ We aren’t.
四.特殊疑问句“疑问词+一般疑问句语序。”
What are you doing for vacation? When is he going camping?
Who are you going there with? Where is she going?

Unit 4 How do you get to school?
Grammar: How引导的特殊疑问句:是指以How, how far, how long, how old,how many, how much等词开头的疑问句。
How does he get to shool?---- He takes the train to get to shool.
How long does it take to walk? ----It takes about 35 minutes to walk.
How far is it from your home to school? It’s four miles from my home to school.
How old is he now? She is twelve years old now.
How many storybooks do you have? I have five storybooks.
How much is this coat? This coat is 200 yuan.
特殊疑问句的简略结构:how about…?+ 名词或动词-ing形式,用于提出建议、请求或征求意见、询问消息等。如:How about playing tennis?
Unit 5 Can you come to my party?
Grammar:情态动词can及邀请句式及其问答
情态动词can的用法:
Can 是最长用的情态动词,其后跟动词原形,can的否定形式为cannot,can’t.
can表“能力”,意思是:能,会 I can paly basketball,but I can’t swim.
can表示能力时可和be able to 互换,be able to有更多的时态,常被用来表示can所 不能表示的将来或完成的概念。E.g. They will be able to run this machine on their own in three months.
表示“可能性”,意思是:可以,可能。That big cinema can seat 5,000 people.
表示允许,意思是可以能够 You can have the book when I have finished it.
表示“惊讶、不相信等(用于疑问句、否定句或感叹句中”。意思是“会、可能。”
This can’t be true. Can it be true?
如何发出、接受和谢绝别人的邀请
表达邀请的常用句型:
Can you come to…?
Could you come to…?
Would you like to come to…?
Do you want to come to…?
接受邀请的常用句型:
Sure. Certainly. OK. I’d love to.
谢绝邀请的常用句型:
I’m sorry, I can’t. I have to…
I’m afraid I can’t. I have to…
I don’t think I can. I have to…
Unit 6 I’m more outgoing than my sister.
Grammar:形容词的比较级
规则变化、不规则变化(课本P93)
than 是比较级中最常见的标志词,意思是“比”。用于引出比较的对象。1.He draws better than me.2.You’re older than I am. You are older than me.
形容词比较级前,有时可以用much,far, a little,a bit, even, three times等词来修饰。Much 和far表示“……得多”,much better好得多,a little, a bit表示稍微,一些,一点。a little shorter, 稍微矮点;even表示“甚至,更加,还要……”even bigger还要大些,three times表示 “…三倍”,如three times bigger than 比……大三倍
Very绝不可以用来修饰比较级,very,so,too, quite 修饰原级
Unit 7 How do you make banana milk shake?
Grammar: 可数名词与不可数名词
一.可数名词
英语中的物质名词大体上可分为可数名词和不可数名词。可数名词指物体的数量可数。其单数形式可在名词前加a或an,表示一个,如a pear. 其负数形式要在词尾加-s,或-es(特殊情况除外),如two bananas, three tomatoes. Many many apples a few students few bags
二.不可数名词
1.不可数名词指物体的数量不可数。不可数名词没有单复数之分,也不能在词前直接加冠词a 或an.表示不可数名词的数量时可在不可数名词前加相应的由量词构成的短语。如a bag of… 2.常见的量词短语有:
a piece of… a cup of… a teaspoon of… a bottle of…
3.不可数名词还可以用下面的词表示数量:much much rain a little little
4.既可以修饰不可数名词又可以修饰不可数名词的词有:
Lots of= a lot of许多,大量 some一些(用于肯定句)any一些(用于否定句和一般疑问句)
Unit 8 How was your school trip?
Grammar:
一般过去时:指在过去某一时间内发生的动作或存在的状态,常和表示过去意义的时间状语连用。如:yesterday, last year(week,month…),two years ago, in2006等。有时也可用when,after,before, as soon as引导的时间状语从句。该时态在句中的体现是谓语动词用过去式。谓语be动词→was/were 否定:wasn’t /weren’t
Be动词句型
一般疑问句:was/were +主语…
特殊疑问句:疑问词+was/were+主语
陈述句:主语+was/were+…(肯定句) 否定句:主语+wasn’t/weren’t+…
行为动词句型(当句中的动词为行为动词时,要借助动词did构成一般疑问句和否定句)
肯定式:主语+动词过去式
否定式:主语+didn’t+动词原形
一般疑问句:Did +主语+动词原形
特殊疑问句:Did+主语+动词原形
Unit 9 When was he born?
Grammar: 一般过去时的特殊疑问句
一般过去时的特殊疑问句的变法同一般现在时一样,不同之处在于须将be动词或助动词改为过去时态,即“特殊疑问词+were或was(第三人称单数)+主语+(表语)+其他成分”或“特殊疑问词+助动词did+主语+实义动词+其他成分。”
以when引导的特殊疑问句,对某人的出生年月进行提问,句型是:
When was/were…born? … was/were born in +时间
When was David beckham born? 大卫.贝克汉姆是什么时候出生的?He was born in 1975.
二.以how long 引导的特殊疑问句,对表示某一短时间的状语进行提问。句型是:
How long did + 主语+动词?
How long did Charles Smith hiccup? He hiccupped for 69 years and 5 months.
三.When did he start hiccupping? 他什么时候开始打嗝?When +did+主语+动词?
Unit 10 I’m going to be a basketball player.
Grammar:一般将来时
表示将来某个时间要发生的动作或存在的状态,也表示将来经常或反复发生的动作,常与表示将来的时间状语连用。
1. be going to + 动词原形 What are you going to do next Sunday?
2. will/shall + 动词原形 I will go to my hometown next week.
3.be +v.ing The Greens are moving to another city the day after tomorrow.
4. be +动词不定式 You are to be back by 10 o’clock.
5. be + about + 动词不定式 The meeting is about to begin.
Unit 11 Could you please clean your room?
Grammar:情态动词
情态动词,表示说话者对某一动作的看法和态度,包括可能、怀疑、允许、愿望、必要、猜测等。Can(能、会),may( 可以),must( 必须、一定)等。
情态动词的特点:(1)情态动词有一定词义,但不能单独作谓语,必须和另一个动词原形一起构成谓语,且没有人称和数的变化。1. I can speak English. 2. She must be a teacher. 3. We may go home now.
(2)变否定句时,直接在情态动词后面加not,无需加助动词。He can’t play the guitar well.
He can’t answer the question. You mustn’t be late.
(3)含有情态动词的句子变一般疑问句时,须将情态动词提前。Can you help me? Must I go there at once?
(4)can 可表示能力、允许、可能性、怀疑猜测,意为“能,会,可以。”can’t, 意为“不能,不会,不可以。”,还有“不可能”之意。
--Can you drive? – Sorry, I can’t. It can’t be true.
(5)can 也可表示请求与邀请
Can you please sweep the floor?
Unit12 What’s the best radio station?
Grammar:形容词/副词的最高级,用于三者或三者以上的人或事物之间的比较,表示在一群人或事物中,其中一个 “最……”见课本p93语法
the +最高级 She is the tallest of all her classmates.
最高级可被序数词以及much, by far,nearly,almost, by no means, not quite,not really, nothing like等修饰。This hat is by far the biggest.
表示最高程度的形容词,excellent, extreme, prefect等没有最高级也不能用比较级。He is an excellent teacher.
形容词最高级间修饰做表语或介词并与的名词代词是,被修饰的词往往省略。
He is the youngest (boy) in his class.
Who/Which +be+最高级,A,B,or C? Who is the most useful, a bicycle, a motorcycle,or a car?
the +序数词+最高级 He is the second tallest student in our class.
One of the +最高级+复数名词 The Yellow River is one of the longest rivers in China.

⑹ 初中八年级上册英语语法

新目标八年级上册英语课本
新目标八年级下册英语课本
初中英语新目标八年级下讲解版
初中英语新目标八年级上(讲解)

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初二英语语法语法.txt你出生的时候,你哭着,周围的人笑着;你逝去的时候,你笑着,而周围的人在哭!喜欢某些人需要一小时,爱上某些人只需要一天,而忘记一个人得用一生一、 一般现在时
1.概念:经常、反复发生的动作或行为及现在的某种状况。
2.时间状语: Always, usually, often, sometimes, every week (day, year, month…) , once a week(day, year, month…), on Sundays,
3.基本结构:动词 原形 (如主语为第三人称单数,动词上要改为第三人称单数形式)
4.否定形式:主语+am/is/are +not+其他; 此时态的谓语动词若为行为动 词,则在其前加don't, 如主语为第三人称单数,则用doesn't,同时还原行为动词。
5.一般疑问句:把be动词放于句首;用助动词do提问,如主语为第三人称单数,则用does,同时,还原行为动词。
6.例句:It seldom snows here.这里很少下雪。
He is always ready to help others.他总是乐于帮助别人。
Action speaks louder than words.事实胜于雄辩。
二、 一般过去时
1.概念:过去某个时间里发生的动作或状态;过去习惯性、经常性的动作、行为。
2.时间状语:ago, yesterday, the day before yesterday, last week, last(year, night, month…), in 1989, just now, at the age of 5, one day, long long ago, once upon a time, etc.
3.基本结构:主语+动词或be的过去时+名词
4.否定形式:主语+was/were +not+其他;在行为动词前加didn't,同时还原行为动词。
5.一般疑问句:was或were放于句首;用助动词do的过去式did 提问,同时还原行为动词。
6.例句:She often came to help us in t hose days.那些天她经常来帮助我们。
I didn't know you were so busy.我不知道你是这么忙。
三、 一般将来时
1.概念:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。
2.时间状语:Tomorrow, next day(week, month, year…),soon, in a few minutes, by…, the day after tomorrow, etc.
3.基本结构:主语+am/is/are +going to + do+其它;主语+will/shall + do+其它
4.否定形式:主语+am/is/are not going to do ;主语+will/shall not do+其它
5.一般疑问句:be放于句首;will/shall提到句首。
6.例句:They are going to have a competition with us in studies.他们将有一场比赛和我们一起研究。
It is going to rain.天要下雨了。
四、 一般过去将来时
1.概念:立足于过去某一时刻,从过去看将来,常用于宾语从句中。
2.时间状语:The next day (morning, year…),the following month(week…),etc.
3.基本结构:主语+was/were +going to + do+其它;主语+would/should + do+其它
4.否定形式:主语+was/were+not + going to + do; 主语+would/should + not + do.
5.一般疑问句:was或were放于句首;would/should 提到句首。
6.例句:He said he would go to Beijing the next day.他说他第二天要去北京。
I asked who was going there.我问,谁要去那里。
五、 现在进行时
1.概念:表示现阶段或说话时正在进行的动作及行为。
2.时间状语:Now, at this time, days, etc. look. listen
3.基本结构:主语+be +doing +其它
4.否定形式:主语+be +not +doing+其它
5.一般疑问句:把be动词放于句首。
6.例句:How are you feeling today?你今天感觉如何?
He is doing well in his lessons.在课上他表现得很好。
六、 过去进行时
1.概念:表示过去某段时间或某一时刻正在发生或进行的行为或动作。 新$课$标$第$一$网
2.时间状语:at this time yesterday, at that time或以when引导的谓语动词是一般过去时的时间状语等。
3.基本结构 主语+was/were +doing +其它
4.否定形式:主语+was/were + not +doing+其它
5.一般疑问句:把was或were放于句首。(第一个字母大写)
6.例句:At that time she was working in a PLA unit.那段时间她在人民解放军部队工作。
When he came in, I was reading a newspaper.他进来时,我正在读报纸。
七、 将来进行时
1.概念:表示将来某一时间正在进行的 动作,或表示要在将来某一时间开始,并继续下去的动作。常用来表示询问、请求等。
2.时间状语:Soon, tomorrow, this evening,on Sunday, by this time,in two days, tomorrow evening
3.基本结构:主语+shall/will + be +现在分词+其它
4.否定形式:主语+shall/will + not + be +现在分词+其它
5.例句:This time next day they will be sitting in the cinema.下一天的这个时间,他们正坐在电影院。
He won’t be coming to the party.他不去参加聚会了。
八、 过去将来进行时
1.概念:表示就过去某一时间而言,将来某一时刻或某一段时间正在进行的动作,主要用于宾语从句中,尤其多用于间接引语中。
2.基本结构:should/would + be +现在分词
3.例句:They said they would be coming.他们说了他们将要来。
He said he could not com e because he would be having a meeting.他说他不能来因为要开会。
九、 现在完成时
1.概念:过去发生或已经 完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,或从过去已经开始,持续到现在的动作或状态。
2.时间状语:yet,already,just,never,ever,so far,by now,since+时间点, for+时间段,recently, lately, in the past few years, etc.
3.基本结构:主语+have/has +p.p(过去分词)+其它
4.否定形式:主语+have/has + not +p.p(过去分词)+其它
5.一般疑问句:have或has。
6.例句:I've written an article.我已经写了一篇论文。
The countryside has changed a lot in th e past few years.在过去的几年,农村发生了巨大的变化。
十、 过去完成时
1.概念:以过去某个时间为标准,在此以前发生的动作或行为,或在过去某动作之前完成的行为,即“过去的过去”。
2.时间状语:Before, by the end of last year (term, month…), etc.
3.基本结构:主语+had + p.p(过去分词)+其它 4.否定形式:主语+had + not +p.p(过去分词)+其它
5.一般疑问句:had放于句首。
6.例句:As soon as we got to the station, the train had left.当我们到车站的时候,火车已经开走了。
By the end of last month. We had reviewed four books.到上个月底。我们有了四本书。
基本结构:主语+had+p.p(过去分词)+其它
①肯定句:主语+ had+p.p(过去分词)+其它
②否定句:主语+ had+ not+p.p(过去分词)+其它
③一般疑问句:Had+主语+p.p(过去分词)+其它
④特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+一般疑问句
十一、 将来完成时
1.概念:在将来某一时刻之前开始的动作或状态
2.时间状语:by the time of; by the end of+时间短语( 将来);by the time+从句(将来)
3.基本结构:主语+be going to/will/shall + have+p.p(过去分词)+其它
4例句:By the time you get back, great changes will have taken place in this area.到你回来的时候,就将发生巨大的变化。
十二、 过去将来完成时
1.概念:表示在过去某一时间对将来某一时刻以前所 会发生的动作,常用在虚拟语气中,表示与过去的事实相反。
2.基本结构:should/would have done sth.
3.例句:I thought you'd have left by this time.我想这会儿你已经走了。
He told them he would have finished it by 8 o'clock.他告诉他们他会在8点以前干完。
十三、 现在完成进行时
1.概念:表示从过去某一时间开始一直延续到现在的动作。这一动作可能刚刚开始,也可能仍在继续,并可能延续到将来。
2.基本结构:主语+have/has +been +doing+其它
3.时间状语:since+时间点,for+时间段等。
4.例子:I have been sitting here for an hour.我已经在这里坐了一个小时。
The children have been watching TV since six o'clock.从6点起,孩子们一直看电视。
十四、 过去完成进行时
1.概念:表示某个正在进行的动作或状态,持续到过去某个时刻,还未完成,一直持续到之后的当前才结束。
2.基本结构:主语+ had + been + doing +其它
3.例子:She had been suffering from a bad cold when she took the exam.她在考试之前一直患重感冒。
Had they been expecting the news for some time?他们期待这个消息有一段时间了吧?
4.特殊含义:①尚未完成:He had been writing the novel.他已经在写小说了。(他没写完)
②企图:He had been studying the meaning of this proverb.他曾经学习过这个谚语。(他曾努力学习过它)
③未得结果:We had been studying what our enemy had said.我们一直致力于敌人所说的。(但是我们没有理解)
④最近情况:He had been quarrellin g with his wife.他和他的妻子吵了一场架。(最近)
⑤反复动作:He had been asking me the same question.他一直问我相同的问题。(屡次)
⑥情绪:What had he been doing?他做了什么?(不耐烦)
十五、 将来完成进行时
1.概念:表示动作从某一时间开始一直延续到将来某一时间。是否继续下去,要视上下文而定。
2.基本结构:shall/will have been doing
3.例子:I shall have been working here in this factory for twenty years by the end of the year.到今年年底,我将在这个工厂工作20年了。
If we don't hurry up the store will have been closing before we get t here. 咱们如不快一点儿,等我们到了那儿,店门就会关了。
十六、 过去将来完成进行时
1.概念:表示从过去某时看至未来某时以前会一直在进行的动作。
2.基本结构:should/would + have + been +现在分词
3.例子:He told me that by the end of the year he would have been living there for thirty years.他告诉 我,到年底时,他就在那住了30年了。
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⑺ 英语书八年级上册Grammar focus(语法重点)全部和翻译。。拜托了、

什么哦?

⑻ 八年级英语语法

呵呵 希望对你有所帮助 祝楼主进步哈
一. 知识点总结:
(一)
一般将来时
一般将来时表示将来某个时间要发生的动作或者存在的状态。通常与表示将来的时间状语连用,如tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next year, next month, next week, in 100 years等。
be going to do (动词原形)结构:表示打算、准备做的事情或者肯定要发生的事情。如:It is going to rain.
will do 结构表示将来的用法:
1. 表示预见
Do you think it will rain?
You will feel better after a good rest.
2. 表示意图
I will borrow a book from our school library tomorrow.
What will she do tomorrow?
基本构成如下:
一般疑问句构成:
(1)will+主语+do…? Will Sarah come to visit me next Sunday?
(2)there be 结构的一般疑问句:Will there + be …?
Will there be fewer trees? Yes, there will. / No, there won’t
否定句构成:will + not (won’t)+do
Sarah won’t come to visit me next Sunday.
特殊疑问句构成:
特殊疑问词+will+主语+…?What will Sarah do next Sunday?
根据例句,用will改写下列各句
例:I don’t feel well today. (be better tomorrow)
I’ll be better tomorrow.
1. Gina has six classes today. (have a lot of homework tonight)
_____________________________
2. I’m tired now. (sleep later)
_____________________________
3. My parents need a new car. (buy one soon)
_____________________________
4. We can’t leave right now. (leave a little later)
_____________________________
5. The weather is awful today. (be better tomorrow)
_____________________________
答案:1. She’ll have a lot of homework tonight.
2. I’ll sleep later.
3. They’ll buy one soon.
4. We’ll leave a little later.
5. Maybe it’ll be better tomorrow.

(二)should的用法:
should用来提出建议和忠告,后边加动词原形,否定句直接在should后边加not.
例如:I think you should eat less junk food.
我认为你应该少吃垃圾食品。
She drives a lot and she seldom walks. So I think she should walk a lot.
她经常开车,很少走路。所以我认为她应该多走路。
Students shouldn’t spend too much time playing computer games.
学生们不应当花太多的时间玩计算机游戏。
学习向别人提建议的几种句式:
(1)I think you should…
(2)Well, you could…
(3)Maybe you should …
(4)Why don’t you…?
(5)What about doing sth.?
(6)You’d better do sth.
用should或shouldn’t填空
1. I can’t sleep the night before exams.
You ______ take a warm shower before you go to bed.
2. Good friends ______ argue each other.
3. There is little milk in the glass. We _______ buy some.
4. They didn’t invite you? Maybe you ______ be friendlier.
5. I am a little bit overweight. So I think I _______ do exercises every day.
答案:1. should 2. shouldn’t 3. should 4. should 5. should

(三)
过去进行时
过去进行时表示过去某一点时间正在进行的动作或者过去某一段时间内一直进行的动作。
1. 构成
was /were + doing,例如:
I was watching TV at 9 o’clock last night.
at 9 o’clock last night是时间点
They were playing football all afternoon.
all afternoon是时间段
2. 过去进行时的标志词
at 8 o’clock last night, this time yesterday等。例如:
I was having lunch at home this time yesterday.
昨天的这个时候我正在吃午饭。
At that time she was writing a book.
那阵子她在写一本书。(表示她在那段时间里一直在做那件事情。)
用括号中所给动词的适当形式填空。
1. This time yesterday I ____ ______(read)books.
2. At 9 o’clock last Sunday they ______ ______(have)a party.
3. When I _____(come)into the classroom, she ________ ______(read)a storybook.
4. She _____ ______(play)computer games while her mother ____ ______(cook)yesterday afternoon.
5. I _____ ______(have)a shower when you _______(call)me yesterday.
答案:1. was reading 2. were having 3. came; was reading
4. was playing; was cooking 5. was having; called

(四)
间接引语
形成步骤:
(1)不要逗号,冒号,引号
(2)要考虑到人称的变化(人称的变化与汉语是一致的)
(3)要考虑时态的变化
(4)要考虑时间状语、地点状语和语示代词的变化。
1. 直接引语变成间接引语时,几个主要时态的变化规律
直接引语 间接引语
一般现在时 一般过去时
一般将来时 过去将来时
现在进行时 过去进行时
2. 直接引语变成间接引语时,一些词汇的变化规律
直接引语
1. am / is
2. are
3. have / has
4. will
5. can
6. may 间接引语
1. was
2. were
3. had
4. would
5. could
6. might
用括号中所给动词的适当形式填空。
1. She said I _____(be)hard-working.
2. Peter told me he _____(be)bored yesterday.
3. She said she _____(go)swimming last Sunday.
4. Bobby said he _____(may)call me later.
5. Antonio told me he _____(read)a book then.
答案:1. was 2. was 3. went 4. might 5. was reading

请转述他人说的话:
1. I go to the beach every Saturday. (Tom)
2. I can speak three languages. (Lucy)
3. I will call you tomorrow. (Mike)
4. I’m having a surprise party for Lana. (she)

(五)
if引导的条件状语从句
结构:if+一般现在时,主语+将来时
含义:如果……,将要……
例如:If you ask him, he will help you.
如果你请求他,他会帮助你。
If need be, we’ll work all night.
如果需要,我们就干个通宵。
根据中文提示,完成句子。
1. 如果你参加聚会,你将会过得很开心。
If you ________ the party, you __________.
2. 如果明天下雨,我们将不去野餐。
If it __________ tomorrow, we ___________.
3. 如果你经常听英文歌,你将会喜欢英语的。
If you often ________, you _________________.
答案:
1. If you go to the party, you will have a good time
2. If it rains tomorrow, we won’t go to the picnic
3. If you often listen to English songs, you’ll like English

二. 完形填空特点及解题思路
(一)题型分类与特点
完形填空试题是在给出的一篇短文中有目的地拿掉若干个词,留下一些空格,要求考生借助短文保留的部分,从所给的短文整体出发,在正确理解短文意思的基础上,根据句子和句子间的内在联系、词的用法和习惯搭配等,用适当的词或词语填空,使补全后的短文意思通顺、前后连贯、结构完整。这种题型测试的内容从形式上看是单词或短语的填空,但它必须注意到短文中上、下文意思连贯、词语搭配和语法结构正确,所以在空格上所填的词必须符合语义适用和语法正确两条原则,只考虑某一侧面都可能导致错误。中考中完形填空试题的基本题型分两类:完形填空选择题和完形填空题。
1. 完形填空选择题:该题型的特点是将一篇短文中若干词语抽掉留下空格,对每一空格提供若干个选择项,要求考生通读短文后,在理解短文意思的基础上,运用所学的词汇、句型、语法等语言知识,从所提供的备选项中选出一个最佳答案,使短文内容完整正确。中考完形填空主要以这种题型为主。它所给的短文一般与初中英语教材难易程度相当,字数在150-200个单词之内,多数设置10个左右空格,所设考点涉及词汇、语法及对短文内容的理解。短文的第一句一般不设空,以期提供一个语境,对每一空格设置的选项基本都属于相同或对等的词类,给判定选择带来一定的干扰,侧重考查了考生准确运用词汇的能力及对短文的整体理解和逻辑推理能力。
2. 选词填空题:该题型的特点是把抽出的词打乱顺序,不按原文顺序排列,放在短文前面或后面的方框内,有时还增加几个文外的词,要求考生从中选出适当的词以正确的形式填入短文空格内。
(A)
Jack wanted to ask for two days off, 1 he had only learnt the phrase (短语)“have a day off”. He 2 , then he had an idea. “Grandmother is ill. May I have a day off, 3 ? ”he asked the teacher. “Of course, you can. ”replied (答复)the teacher at once. After a while, the boy came to 4 at the teacher’s door. “May I have a day off 5 ? ”The teacher was very surprised, “Didn’t you 6 it just now? ”“Yes, sir. But I can’t be here 7 , either. ”The teacher understood him and could not help 8 . Then he said with a smile, “Why didn’t you say‘May I have two days off? ’”The boy answered quickly 9 a loud voice. “But you only 10 us‘have a day off! ’”
( )1. A. but B. and C. or D. for
( )2. A. thought hardly
B. thought hard and hard
C. hard thought
D. thought and thought
( )3. A. Miss B. sir C. teacher D. Mr
( )4. A. strike B. best C. hit D. knock
( )5. A. also B. again C. too D. once
( )6. A. speak B. tell C. say D. do
( )7. A. tomorrow
B. the day after tomorrow
C. yesterday
D. the day before yesterday
( )8. A. laugh B. to laugh C. laughed D. laughing
( )9. A. with B. on C. in D. by
( )10. A. teach B. taught C. are teaching D. were teaching

(B)
请根据内容从所给的15个单词中选出最恰当的10个填入空白处,使短文完整,有些词要根据需要作适当的词形变化。
than, so, tell, us, them, report, beause, love, composition, understand, to, that, much, for, what
A generation gap (代沟)has become a serious problem. I read a _______(1)about it in the newspaper. Some children have killed _______(2)after quarrels (争吵)with parents. I think this is _______(3)they don’t have a good talk with each other. Parents now spend _______(4)time in the office. _______(5)they don’t have much time to stay with their children. As time passes, they both feel _______(6)they don’t have the same topics(话题)to talk about. I want to _______(7)parents to be more with your children, get to know them and understand them. And for children, show your feeling _______(8)your parents. They are the people who _______(9)you. So tell them your thoughts (想法). In this way, you can have a better _______(10)of each other.

完形填空选择题的一般解题思路是:
1. 跳过空格、通读全文、把握大意。先跳过空格,通读试题所给的要完形填空的短文,获得整体印象,做到弄清文脉、抓住主旨,较好地把握短文大意。要在阅读理解短文意思的基础上才开始判定选择,切忌仓促下笔。
2. 结合选项、综合考虑、初定答案。在理解全文意思的基础上,再结合所给备选项细读全文,联系上、下文内容,注意从上、下文的语法结构和词语搭配及从选择项中寻找解题的提示,以词、句的意义为先,再从分析句子结构入手,根据短文意思、语法规则、词语固定搭配等进行综合考虑,对备选项逐一进行分析、比较和筛选,排除干扰项、初步选定答案。
3. 瞻前顾后、先易后难、各个击破。动笔时要瞻前顾后、通篇考虑、先易后难。对比较明显直接的、自己最有把握的答案先做,一下子不能确定答案的,先跳过这一空格,继续往下做,最后回过头来再集中精力解决难点。这时可结合已确定答案的选项再读一遍短文,随着对短文理解的深入,可以降低试题的难度,提高选择的正确率。
4. 复读全文、逐空验证、弥补疏漏。完成各道题选择后,把所选的答案代入原文,再把全文通读一篇,逐空认真复查。看所选定的答案是否使短文意思前后连贯、顺理成章,语法结构是否正确,是否符合习惯表达法。如发现错误答案或有疑问的,应再次推敲、反复斟酌、做出修正。
完形填空试题的一般解题思路是:
1. 跳过空格、通读短文、了解大意。解题时先跳过空格,通读完形填空的短文,了解全篇的内容和要旨。要重视首句,善于以首句的时态、语气为立足点,理清文脉,推测全文主题及大意。
2. 复读短文、确定语义、判断词形。把握短文大意后再认真复读短文,利用上下文的语境,结合所学过的知识,先确定空格处所需词语的意义,再根据空格在句子中的位置,判断其在句中充当的成分,从而确定所填词的词性,再依据词语搭配和语法规则,判断所填的词的正确形式。
3. 三读短文、上下参照、验证答案。在短文的每一空白处填上一个词后,将完成的短文再细读一遍,上下参照,连贯思考。把所填的答案放入短文中进行检验,可从上、下文内容是否协调一致、顺理成章,语法结构是否正确无误等进行综合验证,凡有疑问必须重新推敲考虑。

(三)课文阅读指导
1. 初中阅读
阅读理解能力
(1)理解主旨要义
(2)理解文中具体信息
(3)根据上下文猜测生词的意义
(4)做出简单判断的推理
(5)理解文章的基本结构
(6)理解作者的意图和态度
2. 培养良好阅读习惯
(1)扩大视距
(2)克服声读
(3)克服逐字读
3. 猜测词文
(1)通过标题或主题句进行预测
(2)文章的标题或主题句可包括作者的意图和倾向、篇章的总体意义和深层意义,因此通过文章标题或主题句进行预测,以便正确理解。
(3)通过语篇标记进行预测
(4)语篇标记包括关联词、转换词也包括其他关键词。
(5)利用背景知识预测
(6)利用图片进行预测

阅读全文

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