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英语比较状语从句语法

发布时间:2021-03-15 17:28:00

❶ 状语从句语法知识

由从句担任的状语,在句子中可修饰谓语(或其它动词)、形容词、副词或是整个句子,它可以用来表示时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、条件、方式、比较、让步等。状语从句是一较大的语法项目,也是近几年高考题中常见的一个重要试点。高考中已考查了时间、让步、地点、条件、目的等状语从句,这些从句仍是今后高考热点,应作充分准备。同时对方式状语从句也应引起重视。
(一)时间状语从句
表示时间的状语从句可由when, as, while, whenever, after, before, till (until), since, once, as soon as (或the moment ), by the time, no sooner than, hardly (scarcely) when, every time等引导。
e.g. When I came into the office, the teachers were having a meeting.
He started as soon as he received the news.
Once you see him, you will never forget him.
No sooner had I gone to bed than I went to sleep.
(二)原因状语从句
原因状语从句是表示原因或理由的,引导这类从句的最常用的连词是because, since, as , now that(既然)等,for 表示因果关系时(它引导的不是从句)为并列连词,语气不如because强。
e.g. He is disappointed because he didn't get the position.
As it is raining, I will not go out.
Now that you mention it, I do remember.
(三)地点状语从句
引导地点状语从句的连词是where 和wherever等。
e.g. Sit wherever you like.
Make a mark where you have a question.
(四)目的状语从句
引导目的状语从句最常用的词(组)是so, so that(从句谓语常有情态动词), in order that, in case(以防,以免)等。
e.g. Speak clearly, so that they may understand you.
She has bought the book in order that she could follow the TV lessons.
He left early in case he should miss the train.
(五)结果状语从句
结果状语从句是表示事态结果的从句,通常主句是原因,从句是结果。由so that (从句谓语一般没有情态动词), so that, such that等引导。
e.g. She was ill, so that she didnt attend the meeting.
He was so excited that he could not say a word.
She is such a good teacher that everyone admires her.
(六)条件状语从句
条件状语从句分真实性(有可能实现的事情)与非真实性(条件与事实相反或者在说话者看来不大可能实现的事情)条件句。引导条件状语从句的词(组)主要有if, unless, so (as) long as, on condition that, so (as) far as, if only ( = if )。注意:条件从句中的if 不能用whether替换。
e.g. If he is not in the office, he must be out for lunch.
You may borrow the book so long as you keep it clean.
So far as I know(据我所知), he will be away for three months.
You can go swimming on condition that ( = if ) you dont go too far away from the river bank.
If he had come a few minutes earlier, he could have seen her.
(七)让步状语从句
让步状语从句可由although, though, as, even if (though), however, whatever, whether or, no matter who (when, what, ) 等引导。注意:as引导的让步状语从句一般是倒装的。
e.g. Though he is a child, he knows a lot.
Child as he is, he knows a lot.
Whatever ( = No matter what ) you say, Ill never change my mind.
(八)方式状语从句
方式状语从句常由as, as if (though), the way, rather than等引导。
e.g. You must do the exercise as I show you.
He acted as if nothing had happened.
(九)比较状语从句
比较状语从句常用than, so (as) as, the more the more等引导。
e.g. I have made a lot more mistakes than you have.
He smokes cigarettes as expensive as he can afford.
The busier he is, the happier he feels.
(十)使用状语从句时要注意的几个问题
1.在时间和条件(有时也在方式、让步等)从句中,主句是一般将来时,从句通常用一般现在时表示将来。
e.g. Well go outing if it doesnt rain tomorrow.
Ill write to you as soon as I get to Shanghai.
2.有些时间、地点、条件、方式或让步从句,如果从句的主语与主句主语一致(或虽不一致,是it),从句的谓语又包含动词be ,就可省略从句中的主语 + be部分。
e.g. When (he was) still a boy of ten, he had to work day and night.
If (you are) asked you may come in.
If (it is) necessary Ill explain to you again.
3.注意区分不同从句:引导的是什么从句,不仅要根据连词,还要根据句子结构和句意来判别。以where为例,能引导多种从句。
e.g. You are to find it where you left it.(地点状语从句)
Tell me the address where he lives.(定语从句,句中有先行词)
I dont know where he came from.(宾语从句)
Where he has gone is not known yet.(主语从句)
This place is where they once hid.(表语从句)

❷ 英语语法状语从句讲解详细

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❸ 英语状语从句的语法知识

状语从句主要用来修饰主句或主句的谓语。一般可分为九大类,分别表示时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、条件、让步、比较和方式。尽管种类较多,但由于状语从句与汉语结构和用法相似,所以理解和掌握它并不难。状语从句的关键是要掌握引导不同状语从句的常用连接词和特殊的连接词即考点。 现分别列举如下:
1. 时间状语从句

常用引导词:when, as, while, as soon as, while, before, after, since , till, until

特殊引导词:the minute, the moment, the second, every time, the day,the instant, immediately , directly, no sooner … than, hardly …when, scarcely … when

I didn’t realize how special my mother was until I became an alt.

While John was watching TV, his wife was cooking.

The children ran away from the orchard(果园) the moment they saw the guard.

No sooner had I arrived home than it began to rain.

Every time I listen to your advice, I get into trouble.

2. 地点状语从句

常用引导词:where

特殊引导词:wherever, anywhere, everywhere

Generally, air will be heavily polluted where there are factories.

Wherever you go, you should work hard.

3. 原因状语从句

常用引导词:because, since, as, since

特殊引导词:seeing that, now that, in that, considering that, given that, considering that, inasmuch as, insomuch as

My friends dislike me because I’m handsome and successful.

Now that everybody has come, let’s begin our conference.

The higher income tax is harmful in that it may discourage people from trying to earn more.

Considering that he is no more than 12 years old, his height of 1.80 m is quite remarkable.

4. 目的状语从句

常用引导词:so that, in order that

特殊引导词:lest, in case, for fear that,in the hope that, for the purpose that, to the end that

The boss asked the secretary to hurry up with the letters so that he could sign them.

The teacher raised his voice on purpose that the students in the back could hear more clearly.

5. 结果状语从句

常用引导词:so … that, so… that, such … that,

特殊引导词:such that, to the degree that, to the extent that, to such a degree that,

He got up so early that he caught the first bus.

It’s such a good chance that we must not miss it.

To such an degree was he excited that he couldn’t sleep last night.

6. 条件状语从句

常用引导词:if, unless,

特殊引导词:as/so long as, only if, providing/provided that, suppose that, in case that, on condition that

We’ll start our project if the president agrees.

You will certainly succeed so long as you keep on trying.

Provided that there is no opposition, we shall hold the meeting here.

7. 让步状语从句

常用引导词:though, although, even if, even though

特殊引导词: as(用在让步状语从句中必须要倒装),while ( 一般用在句首 ),no matter …, in spite of the fact that, while, whatever, whoever, wherever, whenever, however, whichever

Much as I respect him, I can’t agree to his proposal.

尽管我很尊敬他, 我却不同意他的建议。

The old man always enjoys swimming even though the weather is rough.

No matter how hard he tried, she could not change her mind.

He won’t listen whatever you may say.

8. 比较状语从句

常用引导词:as(同级比较), than(不同程度的比较)

特殊引导词:the more … the more … ; just as …, so…; A is to B what /as X is to Y; no … more than; not A so much as B

She is as bad-tempered as her mother.

The house is three times as big as ours.

The more you exercise, the healthier you will be.

Food is to men what oil is to machine. 食物之于人,犹如油之于机器。

9. 方式状语从句

常用引导词:as, as if, how

特殊引导词:the way

When in Rome, do as the Roman do.

She behaved as if she were the boss.

Sometimes we teach our children the way our parents have taught us.

❹ 英语语法(than 引导的比较状语从句)

这是一个有争议的问题,以前。
有的人认为 than 本身可以作为代词做is 的主语。
但是,语言学家 Quirk 指出,这里实际上是省略掉了 what
than what is ···············
并且 Quirk 称这个 what 是 鬼!。

❺ 初中阶段英语状语从句的语法

这是去年去支教总结的,希望有所帮助啦
状语从句
状语从句是句子的状语由一个从句充当,来修饰主句中的动词,形容词或副词等。状语从句都由从属连词引导,与主句连接,放在句末时,一般不在前面加逗号。
状语从句根据它表示的意思可分为时间,原因,条件,比较,结果,目的等类。下面我们拣重点的一个一个来分析。
时间状语从句:是由when,
as,
while,
after,
before,
since,
until,
as
soon
as
等从属连词引导的状语从句。时间状语从句中的谓语动词不能用一般将来时,只能用一般现在时表示将来发生的动作或存在的状态。
如:I
will
call
you
as
soon
as
I
arrive
there.
1、原因状语从句:
because,
since,
as和for都表示原因。常常令我们不知该用哪个好。我们来比较一下。because语势最强,回答why提出的问题,用来说明人所不知的原因。当能够很明显的看出原因或人们已知原因,就用as或since。如:I
don't
like
that
coat,because
the
color
looks
terrible.
由because引导的从句如果放在句末,且前面有逗号,则可以用for来代替。但如果不是说明直接原因,而是多种情况加以推断,就只能用for。如:He
is
not
here,
because
/
for
his
mother
is
ill.
2、目的状语从句:表示目的状语的从句可以由in
order
that,
so
that,等词引导。如:You
must
raise
your
voice
so
that/in
order
that
everybody
can
hear
you
clearly.
3、结果状语从句:结果状语从句常由so...that

such...that引导,要掌握和区分这两个句型,首先要了解so和such后面分别跟什么词。such是形容词,修饰名词或名词词组,so是副词,只能修饰形容词或副词。so
还可与表示数量的形容词many,
few,
much,
little连用,形成固定搭配。如:The
box
is
so
heavy
that
I
can't
carry
it.
4、让步状语从句:是由though,
although
引导的状语从句。though,
although

but不能同时使用。
Although
it
rained,
they
had
a
good
time.

❻ 英语比较从句的用法

than 是连词,本身意思就是"比,多于",前面通常都是用形容词或者副词的比较级,它常常引起一个比较状语从句。如:He is taller than I ( am tall). 其中的than I ( am tall) 是比较状语从句。

❼ 英语语法状语]从句

定语从句是由关系代词和关系副词引导的从句,其作用是作定语修饰主句的某个成分,定语从句分为限定性和非限定性从句两种。状语从句分为时间状语从句,结果状语从句,让步状语从句,原因状语从句,条件状语从句以及行为方式状语从句。名词从句包括主语从句,宾语从句,表语从句和同位语从句及there be句型。

一、 限定性定语从句

1. that即可代表事物也可代表人,which代表事物;它们在从句中作主语或宾语,that在从句中作宾语时常可省略关系词,which在从句中作宾语则不能省略。而且,如果which在从句中作“不及物动词+介词”的介词的宾语,注意介词不要丢掉,而且介词总是放在关系代词which的前边,但有的则放在它原来的位置

2. which作宾语时,根据先行词与定语从句之间的语义关系,先行词与which之间的介词不能丢

3. 代表物时多用which,但在带有下列词的句子中用that而不用which,这些词包括all, anything, much等,这时的that常被省略

4. who和whom引导的从句用来修饰人,分别作从句中的主语和宾语,whom作宾语时,要注意它可以作动词的宾语也可以作介词的宾语

5. where是关系副词,用来表示地点的定语从句

6. when引导定语从句表示时间

〔注〕值得一提的是,表示时间“time"一词的定语从句只用when引导,有时不用任何关系代词,当然也不用that引导

By the time you arrive in London, we will have stayed there for two weeks.

I still remember the first time I met her.

Each time he goes to besiness trip, he brings a lot of living necessities, such as towers, soap, toothbrush etc.

7. whose是关系代词,修饰名词作定语,相当于所修饰成分的前置所有格

8. 当从句的逻辑主语是some, any, no, somebody, anybody, nobody, something, anything, everything或nothing时,常用there is来引导

二、非限定性定语从句:非限定性定语从句的作用是对所修饰的成分作进一步说明,通常和主句间用逗号隔开,将从句拿掉后其他部分仍可成立

1. which引导的非限定性定语从句来说明前面整个句子的情况或主句的某一部分

2. 在引导限定性定语从句时,that有时相当于in which, at which, for which或at which

Attitudes towards daydreaming are changing in much the same way that(in which) attitudes towards night dreaming have changed. 人们对白日做梦的态度正在改变,这与人们对夜间做梦的看法的变化有非常相似之处。

I like the music for the very reason that(for which) he dislike it. 我出于某种原因喜欢这种音乐,而他恰恰与我相反。

We arrived the day that(on which) they left. 刚好我们到的那天他们走了。

3. 有时as也可用作关系代词

4. 在非限定性定语从句中,不能用that,而用who, whom代表人,用which代表事物

状语从句

§ 1状语从句的种类

用来修饰谓语动词、其它动词、定语、状语或整个句子的从句叫做状语从句。状语从句可分为:

1.时间状语从句;(adverbial clause of time)

2.地点状语从句;(adverbial clause of place)

3.原因状语从句;(adverbial clause of cause)

4.条件状语从句;(adverbial clause of condition)

5.目的状语从句;(adverbial clause of purpose)

6.让步状语从句;(adverbial clause of concession)

7.比较状语从句;(adverbial clause of comparison)

8.程度状语从句;(adverbial clause of degree)

9.方式状语从句;(adverbial clause of manner)

10.结果状语从句。(adverbial clause of result)

§2状语从句的时态特点

一般情况下,时间和条件状语从句的谓语动词一般用“一般现在时”表示“一般将来时”,用“现在完成时”表示“将来完成时”。例如:

I will call you as soon as I arrive in Beijing. 我一到北京就给你打电话。(这是由as soon as引导的时间状语从句,从句中的谓语动词arrive是一般现在时,表示一般将来时,决不可用will arrive)

As soon as I have finished this work, I will go home. 我一完成此工作,就回家。(从句中的谓语动词用现在完成时have finished,表示将来完成时,决不可用will have finished)

If he comes back, please let me know.如果他回来了,请通知我。(从句中的谓语动词用comes back,表示一般将来时,决不可用will come back)

二 时间状语从句

§3时间状语从句(adverbial clause of time)

1.由when, while, as引导的时间状语从句。例如:

When you think you know nothing, then you begin to know something.当你以为自己一无所知的时候,你就是在开始知道一些事物了。

When truth is buried under the ground it grows, it chokes, it gathers such an explosive force that on the day it bursts out , it blows up everything with it.当真理被埋在地下的时候,它在生长,它感到压抑,它蓄存着这么一种爆炸性力量,一旦冒出,它就会炸破一切!

Strike while the iron is hot. 趁热打铁。

Will you watch my clothes while I have a swim. 我游泳的时候,请你照看一下我的衣服。

You can feel the air moving as your hand pushes through it. 当你的手在空气中挥动的时候,你就能感觉到空气在流动。

Our headmaster laughed as she spoke.我们的校长边谈边笑。

【区别】when, while和as的区别:when引导的从句的谓语动词可以是延续性的动词,又可以是瞬时动词。并且when有时表示“就在那时”。例如:

When she came in, I stopped eating.她进来时,我在吃饭。(瞬时动词)

When I lived in the countryside, I used to carry some water for him.当的住在农村时,我常常为他担水。(延续性的动词)

We were about to leave when he came in.我们就要离开,就在那时他进来了。

While引导的从句的谓语动作必须是延续性的,并强调主句和从句的动作同时发生(或者相对应)。并且while有时还可以表示对比。例如:

While my wife was reading the newspaper, I was watching TV. (was reading是延续性的动词,was reading和was watching同时发生)

I like playing football while you like playing basketball.我喜欢踢足球,而你喜欢打篮球。(对比)

As表示“一边……一边”,as引导的动作是延续性的动作,一般用于主句和从句动作同时发生;as也可以强调“一先一后。例如:

We always sing as we walk.我们总是边走边唱。(as表示“一边……一边”)

As we was going out, it began to snow.当我们出门时,开始下雪了。(as强调句中两个动作紧接着先后发生,而不强调开始下雪的特定时间)

2.由before和after引导的时间状语从句。注意before引导的从句不再用否定式的谓语,并且当before引导的从句位于主句之后,有时译成“就,才”。还要注意主句和从句之间的时间关系。当主句用将来时,从句总是用现在时;如果before引导的从句谓语用的是过去时,则主句动词多用过去完成时,这样以便体现动作发生的先后。After表示主句动作发生在从句动作之后。主句和从句的动作的时间关系正好与before引导的从句相反。例如:

It will be four days before they come back. 他们要过四天才能回来。

Einstein almost knocked me down before he saw me.爱因斯坦几乎把我撞倒才看到我。

My father had left for Canada just before the letter arrived.我父亲恰好在信到之前去加拿大了。

They had not been married four months before they were divorced. 他们结婚还不到四个月就离婚了。

After you think it over, please let me know what you decide.你仔细考虑过以后,告诉我你是怎样决定的。

After we had finished the work, we went home.完成工作之后,我们回家了。(从句用过去完成时,主句用一般过去时)

3.由till或until引导的时间状语从句。till和until一般情况下两者可以互换,但是在强调句型中多用until。并且要注意的是:如果主句中的谓语动词是瞬时动词时,必须用否定形式;如果主句中的谓语动词是延续性动词时,用肯定或否定形式都可以,但表达的意思不同。例如:

I didn't go to bed until(till) my father came back.直到我父亲回来我才上床睡觉。

It was not until the meeting was over that he began to teach me English.直到散会之后他才开始教我英语。

I worked until he came back.我工作到他回来为止。

I didn't work until he came back.他回来我这才开始工作。

Please wait until I arrived.在我到达之前请等我。

4.由since引导的时间状语从句。 since引导的从句的谓语动词可以是延续性的动词,又可以是瞬时动词。一般情况下,从句谓语动词用一般过去时,而主句的谓语动词用现在完成时。但在It is +时间+since从句的句型中,主句多用一般现在时。例如:

I have been in Beijing since you left. 自从你离开以来,我一直在北京了。

Where have you been since I last saw you? 自上次我和你见面以后,你到哪里去了?

It is four years since my sister lived in Beijing. 我妹妹不在北京住有四年了。

It is five months since our boss was in Beijing.我们老板离开北京有五个月了。

5.由as soon as, immediately, directly, instantly, the moment, the instant, the minute, 等引导的时间状语从句。这些连词都表示“一……就”。例如:

I will go there directly I have finished my breakfast. 吃完早饭,我立即到那里去。

The moment I heard the news, I hastened to the spot.我一听到消息,马上赶到了出事地点。

As soon as I reach Canada, I will ring you up. 我一到加拿大,就给你来电话。

【注意】hardly(scarcely, rarely)…when / before, no sooner…than相当于as soon as之意。主句用过去完成时,从句用一般过去时。当hardly, scarcely, rarely和no sooner位于句首时,主句应用倒装语序。例如:

He had no sooner arrived home than he was asked to start on another journey. 他刚到家,就被邀请开始另一旅程。

No sooner had the sun shown itself above the horizon than he got out of bed to commence work.太阳刚从地平线上升起,他就起床劳动去了。

Hardly had I sat down when he stepped in.我刚坐下,他就进来了。

He had hardly fallen asleep when he felt a soft touch on his shoulder.这个阿拉伯人刚要入睡就感到肩膀上被轻轻一触。

6.由by the time引导的时间状语从句。注意时态的变化:在一般情况下,如果从句的谓语动词用一般过去时,主句的谓语动词用过去完成时;如果主句的谓语动词用一般现在时,主句的谓语动词用将来完成时。例如:

By the time you came back, I had finished this book.到你回来时,我已经写完这本书了。

By the time you come here tomorrow, I will have finished this work. 你明天来这儿的时候,我将已经完成此工作了。

7.由each time, every time和whenever引导的时间状语从句。例如:

Each time he came to Harbin, he would call on me. 他每次来哈尔滨,总是来看我。

Whenever that man says“To tell the truth”, I suspect that he's about to tell a lie.每当那个人说“说实在话”的时候,我猜想他就要说谎了。

You grow younger every time I see you. 每次遇到你,见你更年轻了。

8.由as long as和so long as引导的时间状语从句。这两个连词表示“有多久……就多久”。例如:

You can go where you like as long as you get back before dark. 你可以随意到哪里去,只要在天黑以前回来就行。

I will fight against these conditions as long as there is a breath in my body! 只要我一息尚存,我就要反对这种境况。

三 地点状语从句

§4地点状语从句 (adverbial clause of place)

地点状语从句一般由连接副词where, wherever等引导,已经形成了固定的句型,例如:

句型1:Where+地点从句,(there)+主句。

【注意】此句型通常译成“哪里……哪里就……”;主句在从句后面时,there可用可不用;如果主句在从句的前面时,一般都不用there。例如:

Where there is no rain, farming is difficult or impossible.在没有雨水的地方,耕作是困难的,或根本不可能的。

They were good persons. Where they went, there they were warmly welcomed. 他们都是好人。因此他们走到哪里都受到热烈欢迎。

You should have put the book where you found it. 你本来应该把书放回原来的地方。

Where the Communist Party of China goes, there the people are liberated.哪里有了中国共产党,哪里人民得解放。

句型2:Anywhere/ wherever+地点从句,+主句。

【注意】anywhere本身是个副词,但是,常可以引导从句,相当于连词,意思相似于wherever, anywhere引导的从句可位于主句之前,也可以位于主句之后。 而wherever本身就是个连词,表示“在何处,无论何处”。例如:

Wherever the sea is , you will find seamen.有海就有海员。

❽ 英语语法状语从句

比较状语从句经常是省略了与主句相同的词语,因此,此句补全是:
The situation is better than (the situation) (that) I expected (is good).这个情况比我预料的情况要好。
than (the situation) (that) I expected (is good) 这是比较状语从句部分,括号中的词语就是被省去的、与主句相同的词语, the situation是从句中的主语,that I expected是定语从句,修饰the situation, 作宾语的关系代词that可以省去掉。 is 是从句中的谓语动词,good是表语, 这两个与主句相同,因此被省略。
回答完毕,希望我的回答能有帮助。

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