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高中英语必修四第四单元语法

发布时间:2021-02-25 20:33:50

❶ 高一英语必修四语法总结(外研社版)

您好, 高一英语必修四语法总结(外研社)
高一英语必修4

重要词汇拓展
1 achievement n.成就,功绩→ v.达到,完成,实现
2 welfare n 福利事业,福利
3. project n.方案, 计划,, 设计,工程, 企业, 事业,科研项目; 课外自修项目
vi. ①伸出, 突出 ②设想自已处身于(into)
4. specialist n.专家,专业工作者→special adj.特殊的,专门的→specialize vi.专攻,专门从事
5. connection n.连接,关系→connect v.连接
6. condition n. 状况(不可数),条件(可数),环境(复数)on no condition 决不
7.organization n.组织,机构,团体 organize—vt.组织;筹备, 成立; 使加入工会,使有条理
8.behave v.举止,表现→behavior n.行为,举止
9. shade n.阴凉处 v.遮住光线
10.▲ worthwhile adj.值得的,值得做的 It is worthwhile doing sth./ to do sth.
worth adj.值……,值得…… be worth doing
worthy adj.值得做的,可尊敬的 be worthy of sth/ being done be worthy to be done
11. observe v.观察,观测,遵守→observation n.观察,观测
12. respect v./n.尊敬,尊重,敬意→respectable adj.值得尊敬的,正派的,体面地→respectful adj.有礼貌的,恭敬的
13. argue .v.争论,辩论→argument n.争论,辩论 argued-adj 引起争论的
14.entertainment-n 款待,娱乐 entertain-v 款待;招待,娱乐,抱有,怀着(想法、疑问)
15. crowd n.人群,观众 v.挤满,使拥挤→crowded adj.拥挤的
16. inspire v.鼓舞,激发→inspired adj.受到鼓舞的,有灵感的→inspiring adj.鼓舞人的→inspiration n.鼓舞,灵感
17 support v.支持,拥护→supporter n.支持者,拥护者
18.refer-vi 谈到,查阅,参考
19.intend v.计划,打算→intention n.打算,目的,意图
20.considerate adj.考虑周到的→consider v.考虑,认为
→consideration n考虑,体谅→considering prep考虑到
21.kind adj 仁慈的,和善的,友爱的kindness –n 仁慈,好意,善良
22.deliver v.递送,生(小孩),接生,发表(演讲等)→delivery n.投递,交货,分娩
23.modest adj 谦虚的,谦让的,适度的

重点短语梳理
1 devote…to (doing) sth.把…奉献给devote oneself to致力于,献身于 be devoted to专心致志于
2 human beings 人类
3 move off 离开,启程,出发
4 lead a…life 过着……的生活
5 crowd in 涌上心头,涌入脑海
6 look down on/ upon 蔑视,瞧不起
7 refer to 查阅,参考,谈到 (其中,to为介词)
8 by chance 碰巧,凑巧
9. come across 偶遇,碰见
10. carry on 继续,坚持 carry out 实行,执行,完成
11. be dressed in 穿着… dress as 打扮成…
12.fight for 为….而战 fight against 与…战斗
13.put to death判死刑
14. concern oneself with…关注… 注意…
15.intend to do sth./ doing sth. 打算做某事
16. in the shade of 在…的树荫下,在…的庇护下
17.gain doctor’s degree 获得博士学位
18. be considered as 被看做….
19.take turns to do sth 采取步骤做某事
20.do research on… 做…方面的研究
21.mean to do 打算做某事 mean doing 意味着
22. by now 直到现在

重点句型再现
1 She spent years observing and recording their daily activities.
她花去多年的时间观察和记录它们的日常活动。
(spend+时间/金钱+doing sth 花时间或金钱去做某事)
2 Only after her mother came to help her for the first few months was she allowed to begin her project. 她的母亲头几个月来帮过她的忙;这才使她得以开始自己的计划。
(only位于句首并修饰状语,句子要发生部分倒装,将助动词或联系动词置于主语之前)
3 Following Jane’s way of studing chimps, our group are all going to visit them in the forest.
我们一行人将按照Jane研究猩猩的方法去森林里拜访他们。
(-ing作方式状语。注意非谓语动词作状语时的区别:-ing主动/进行/延续,-ed被动/过去,to do主动/将来)
4.It seemed that she had been very busy in her chosen carrer travelling abroad to study as well as writing books and articles 看起来她忙于所选择的和写作一样的到国外研究。
(It seemed that+从句:似乎是,看起来好像是。 as well as 还有)
5.What made her succeed later on was the kindness and consideration she showed to all her patients
后来使她成功的是她对所有病人献出的爱心和体贴。
(What made her succeed主语从句。了解what引导的名词性从句的译法,明白它们在句中的成分:作主语、宾语、表语、同位语)

语法剖析(主谓一致)
主谓一致,指人称和数方面的一致关系。分为:语法一致, 内容一致, 就近一致。
(一) 语法一致原则: 即主语为单数,谓语用单数,主语为复数,谓语也用复数。以下为注意事项:
1. 单数主语即使后面带有with , along with, together with, like(象), but (除了),except, besides, as well as, no less than, rather than(而不是), including, in addition to 引导的短语, 谓语动词仍用单数。如: Air as well as water is matter. 空气和水都是物质。No one except two servants was late for the dinner. 除了两个仆人外, 没有一个人迟来用餐。
2. 用and连接的并列主语,如果主语是同一个人,同一事,同一概念, 谓语动词用单数, 否则用复数。如:
The poet and writer has come. 那位诗人兼作家来了.(一个人)
A hammer and a saw are useful tools. 锤子和锯都是有用的工具. (两样物)
用and连接的成对名词习惯上被看成是一个整体, 如:bread and butter(黄油抹面包), knife and fork(刀叉)等作主语时, 谓语动词用单数。
3. 不定式(短语), 动名词(短语), 或从句作主语时, 谓语动词用单数. 如:
Serving the people is my great happiness.
为人民服务是我最大的幸福.
When we’ll go out for an outing has been decided.
我们什么时候出去郊游已决定了。
4. 用连接的并列主语被each, every 或no修饰时, 谓语动词用单数.
Every boy and every girl likes to go swimming. 每个男孩和每个女孩都喜欢去游泳.
No teacher and no student was absent from the meeting. 没有老师也没有学生开会缺席.
Each man and (each) woman is asked to help. 每个男人和每个女人都被请去帮忙。
5. each of + 复数代词, 谓语动词用单数. 复数代词+each, 谓语动词用单数.如:
Each of us has something to say. 我们每个人都有话要说。
6. 若主语中有more than one 或many a/an , 尽管从意义上看是复数, 但它的谓语动词仍用单数。 但more+复数名词+than one做主语时, 谓语动词仍用复数. 如:
Many a boy likes playing basketball. 许多男生都喜欢打篮球.
More than one student was late. 不只一个学生迟到
More persons than one come to help us. 不止一个人来帮助我们。
7. none 做主语时,谓语动词可用单数, 也可用复数; 但在代表不可数的东西时总是看作单数,因而谓语动词要用单数. 如:
None of us are (is) perfect. 人无完人。
None of this worries me. 这事一点不使我着急。
8. 名词如: trousers, scissors, clothes, goods, glasses 等作主语时, 谓语动词必须用复数. 如:
His clothes are good. 但这些名词前若出现 a pair of , 谓语一般用单数.如:
A pair of glasses is on the desk. 桌上有一副眼镜。
9. 形复意单名词如:news ; 以ics 结尾的学科名称如: physics, mathematics, economics; 国名如: the United States; 报纸名如: the New Times; 书名如: Arabian Night <天方夜谈>; 以及The United Nations<联合国> 等作主语时, 谓语动词用单数。
10. “a +名词+and a half “, “one and a half + 名词”, “the number of + 名词” 等作主语时, 谓语动词要用单数. 如:
Only one and a half apples is left on the table.
注意: one or two + 复数名词作主语, 谓语动词用复数形式, 如:
One or two places have been visited. 参观了一两个地点。
(二) 内容一致原则:
1.主语中有all, half, most, the rest等, 以及”分数或百分数+名词”做主语时,谓语动词单复数取决于连用的名词.如:
The rest of the bikes are on sale today. 剩下的自行车, 今天出售。
60%of the apple was eaten by little boy. 这个苹果的60%都被这个小男孩吃了。
Most of the apples were rotten. 大部分的苹果都是烂的。
Most of the apple was eaten by a rat. 这个苹果的大部分被老鼠吃了。
2. 不定数量的词组, 如:part of , a lot of , lots of , one of , a number of , plenty of等作主语时, 谓语动词的单复数取决于量词后面名词的数.如:
A part of the textbooks have arrived. 一小部分教科书已运到。
A part of the apple has been eaten up by the pig. 这个苹果的一部分被猪吃光了。
3. 加减乘除用单数.如:
Fifteen minus five is ten . 15减去5等于10。
4. 表示时间, 金钱, 距离, 度量等的名词做主语时, 尽管是复数形式, 它们做为一个单一的概念时, 其谓语动词用单数.如:
Ten miles is a good distance. 十英里是一个相当的距离。
5. (1) 通常作复数的集体名词. 包括police , people, cattle 等, 这些集体名词通常用作复数.如:
The British police have only very limited powers.
(2) 通常作不可数名词的集体名词. 包括equipment, furniture, clothing, luggage 等.
(3) 可作单数也可作复数的集体名词. 包括 audience, committee, government, family, enemy, group, party, team, public 等.如:
The committee has/have decided to dismiss him. 委员会决定解雇他。
6. the +形容词/过去分词形式”表示一类人或事物, 作主语时, 谓语动词用复数.如:
The injured were saved after the fire.
(三) 就近原则
1. 由here, there, where 等引导的倒装句中, (有时主语不止一个时)谓语动词与靠近它的主语在数上一致.如:
Here comes the bus 公共汽车来了.
Here is a pen and some pieces of paper for you. 给你一支钢笔和几张纸。
Where is your wife and children to stay while you are away?
你不在这儿的时候, 你爱人和孩子在哪儿呆呢?
2. 用连词or, either.... or, neither….nor, not only….but also 等连接的并列主语, 谓语动词与靠近它的主语在数上一致。 如:
Neither the students nor the teacher knows anything about it 学生和老师都不知道这事.
He or you have taken my pen. 他或你拿了我的钢笔。
注意: one of +复数名词+who/that/which 引导的定语从句中, 定语从句的动词为复数。如:
Mary is one of those people who keep pets. 玛丽是饲养宠物者之一。
The only one of +复数名词+ who/that./which 引导的定语从句中,定语从句的动词应为单数。
Mary is the only one of those people who keeps pets. 玛丽是唯一一个饲养宠物的人。

重要词汇拓展
1 sunburn v.日晒,晒黑→sunburnt adj.晒黑的
2 struggle v./n.挣扎,奋斗,努力 struggle against struggle for struggle with
3 decade n.十年,十年期
4 super n.冗员, 额外人员; [口]特级品, 特大号商品; 超级市场adj特级的, 极好的, 非凡的
5. hunger n.饥饿,渴望/v.使饥饿→hungry adj.饥饿的;渴望的
6.output n. 产量,输出,input 输入,消费
7.disturbing adj 引起烦恼的,令人不安的,disturb v. 打扰,麻烦
8.expand vt.扩大, 扩展,张开, 使发, 详谈; 引伸
9. circulate v.循环,流通→circulation n.循环,流传
10. battle n.战役,战斗 v.搏斗,奋斗
11. therefore adv.因此,所以
12. rid vt 摆脱,除去
13.freedom n 自由,自主→ free adj 自由的,免费的
14.equip v.配备,装备→equipment n.设备
15. export v.输出,出口 n.输出(品)→import v.输入,进口 n.进口(品)
16.nationality n 国籍,national adj 国家的,民族的 nation n. 国家
17.occupation n 工作,职业,占领 occupy v.占用,使从事,把注意力集中于...占领, 占据
18.confuse v.使迷惑,使为难→confused adj.感到迷惑的 confusing adj.令人迷惑的
19 regret v./n.后悔,遗憾→regretful adj.后悔的,遗憾的
20.proction n.生产,制造,proctive 可生产的,可制造的,proce –v 生产,制造
21.discovery n. 发现,发觉,discover-v 发现,
22.focus v. 集中,聚焦,n 焦点,中心点
23. rece v.减少,缩减→rection n.减少,缩减
24 comment n./v.评论,议论

重点短语梳理
1 if not 如果不…. If so 如果这样,
2.consider oneself sth 自认为是… consider sb sth 认为某人是…
3.since then 从那时起
4.search for a way to do sth 寻找做某事的途径。
5.thanks to 幸亏,由于,因为 (to为介词)
6.rid…of… 摆脱,除去 get rid of 除去…
7. be satisfied with 对……感到满意
8 would rather do than do宁愿,宁可…也不…=would do rather than do
9with the hope of 满怀希望..
10.in some way 在某种程度上
11.cause damage to 对… 造成危害。
12.build up 增强,强大
13. lead to 导致,造成(to为介词)
14. focus on 集中(注意力、精力等)于
15. keep…from/of 使……免受(影响、伤害等)

重点句型再现
1. Dr Yuan Longping grows what is called super hybrid rice.
袁隆平博士种植的是被称为“超级杂交水稻”的稻种。
(what引导的名词性从句在句中作宾语)
2. The special strain of rice makes it possible to proce one-third more of the crop in the same field. 这种特殊的稻种使得同样的田地多收获三分之一的产量。
(makes it possible 中it为形式宾语,to do不定式短语为真正宾语)
3. It’s a great pity that 很遗憾的是….
4.Using his hybrid rice,farmers are procing harvest twice as large as before.
由于使用了他的杂质水稻,农民的丰收是以前的两倍。
(-ing动词短语作原因状语)

语法剖析(非谓语动词---动词的-ing形式作主语和宾语)
一、动词-ing形式作主语
● 动词-ing形式作主语常用来表示经常性和习惯性的动作。动词-ing形式作主语通常放在句首,谓语用单数形式。例如:Listening to music is my sister’s hobby.
● 动词-ing形式作主语时,为了保持句子平衡,可以用it作形式主语。常用的结构:
1. It is + no use / no good / useless etc.+ v-ing
2. It is + nice / good / interesting / a waste of … etc. + v-ing 例如:
It is no use crying over spilt milk.
二、动词-ing形式作宾语
● 动词-ing形式既可作动词的宾语,又可作介词的宾语。
1. 以下动词或短语只接动词-ing形式作宾语:
admit, avoid, appreciate, consider, enjoy, escape, finish, keep, mind, miss, suggest等动词; can’t stand, give up, feel like, keep on, think of, set about, dream of 等短语。
2. 在下列短语中,to是介词,后面应用动词-ing形式作宾语:
be / get used to, look forward to, devote…to, pay attention to, object to等。
3. 下列动词或短语既可以跟动词-ing形式作宾语,也可以跟不定式作宾语,但意义上有区别:
● like, love, prefer如表示经常性的行为后接动词-ing形式;如表示具体的行为常用动词不定式,但要注意:如果like, love, prefer前有would,后面则接动词不定式。如:Would you like to go shopping with me?
● 下列几组词接动词-ing形式作宾语和不定式作宾语含义不同:
forget doing 忘记已做过某事; forget to do 忘记要做某事
remember doing 记得做过某事; remember to do 记住要做某事
mean doing 意思是,意味着; mean to do 打算做
regret doing 后悔做过某事; regret to do 遗憾要做某事
can’t help doing 禁不住做; can’t help (to) do 不能帮忙做。
● 在allow, permit, advise等动词后直接跟动词-ing形式作宾语,如果这些词后面有名词或代词作宾语,其后要用动词不定式作宾语补足语。如:
We don’t allow smoking in the classroom.
We don’t allow students to smoke.
● 动词need, require, want作“需要”解时,其后用动词-ing的主动形式或不定式的被动形式作宾语,这时动词-ing的主动形式表被动意义。如:
Your coat wants washing. = Your coat wants to be washed.
三、动词-ing的复合结构
动词-ing的复合结构即:物主代词或名词所有格(作宾语时也可以用代词宾格或名词普通格) + 动词-ing。如:
Lucy’s turning up surprised everyone present.
Would you mind my / me using your mobile phone?
四、动词-ing的时态、语态以及否定形式动词-ing有一般式(doing) 和完成式 (having done) 两种时态,一般式的被动语态是being done,完成式的被动语态是having been done。动词-ing的完成式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词的动作之前。
动词-ing的否定形式是在doing之前加not。例如:
I’m sorry for not having told you the news earlier.

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❷ 高中英语必修4语法详解

非谓语动词
一、动词不定式 动词不定式的基本形式是“to+动词原形”,有时可以不带to。动词不定式没有人称和数的变化,在句子中不能作谓语,但可以担任主语、表语、宾语、状语和宾语补足语。动词不定式仍保留动词的一些特点。 (一)动词不定式的特征及用法 1.动词不定式的构成及特征 “to +动词原形”构成动词不定式,是一种非谓语形式,在句子中不能作谓语,没有人称和数的变化,它具有名词、形容词和副词的特征。 2.动词不定式的用法 动词不定式具有名词、形容词和副词的特征,在句子中可以作主语、表语、宾语、定语和状语。 作主语 动词不定式作主语时,往往用it作形式主语,这种句型可归纳为下面的句型: It is + adj.+ 动词不定式 如果要说明不定式的动作执行者,可以用for It is + adj.+ for sb. to do sth. 作表语 My wish is to become a teacher. 作宾语 Most of us like to watch football matches. 作宾语补足语 He told me to be here on time. 作定语 I have nothing to say about that thing. 作状语 He stopped to have a look. 3.动词不定式的否定形式 动词不定式的否定形式not + to + 动词原形 4.动词不定式与疑问词连用 疑问代词who, what, which和疑问副词when, where, how, why等后面可以接动词不定式,构成动词不定式短语,可以在句子中作主语、宾语、表语等成分。(二)动词不定式的时态和被动形式 动词不定式是非谓语动词的一种,由不定式符号(to)加动词原形构成。不定式的形式有五种: 一般式to do. 完成被动式to have been done 二、分词 分词是动词非谓语形式的一种,包括现在分词和过去分词。现在分词表示:主动,动作正在进行。过去分词表示:被动,动作已经完成。 (一)分词的作用 分词在句中可以作定语、表语、状语和宾语补足语。分词作状语时,它的逻辑主语就是句子的主语,否则分词前面必须有自己的主语。 (二)分词的时态 现在分词分一般式和完成式,而过去分词则没有时态形式的变化。 现在分词的一般式表示动作与谓语动词同时发生,或在谓语动词之前发生。现在分词的完成时,表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前。常用作状语。(三)现在分词的被动式 被动一般式 being done 被动完成式 having been done This is one of the new supermarkets being built in our city. Having been told many times, he was able to operate the machine. (四)分词的否定形式 分词的否定式,由not+分词构成,(五)分词独立主格结构 当分词的逻辑主语与主句的主语不同时,带逻辑主语的分词短语成为独立主格结构,在句法功能上起状语作用。三、动名词 动名词是动词非谓语形式的一种,由动词加ing构成。动名词既有动词特征,也有名词特征。 动名词在句中可以作主语、表语、宾语和定语. 动名词的否定形式由not +动名词构成。 动名词的复合结构由名词所有格或物主代词加上动名词构成。 动名词的一般式,表示的动作可以与谓语动词同时发生或在前,或在后。 动名词的完成式表示在谓语动词之前完成的动作。

❸ 高中人教版英语必修四第四单元第一篇课文里面的所有从句(只要是从句),求答案

从句(Subordinate Clause)是复合句中不能独立成句,但具有主语部分和谓语部分,由专that、who、whom,when,why,where。how,which等引导词(Connective)引属导的非主句部分。

中文名:从句
外文名:Subordinate Clause
特点:从句是复合句中不能独立成句
功能:具有主语部分和谓语

❹ 高中英语必修4第四单元Communication:no problem的翻译

沟通:没问题吗?
昨天,另一个学生和代表我们学校学生会,去首都国际机场迎接今年的国际学生。他们都要在北京大学学习。我们将他们先对他们的宿舍,然后到学生餐厅用膳。半个小时后等待他们的飞行到达,我看见几个年轻人进入等候区好奇地环顾四周。我看着他们站了一分钟,然后就去迎接他们。
第一个到的人是托尼·加西亚从哥伦比亚,其次是朱丽亚史密斯来自英国。当我遇上他们,然后介绍他们认识对方,我很惊讶。托尼接近茱莉亚,碰着她的肩膀并亲吻她的脸颊!她退后一步出现对此感到惊讶,并举起她的手,仿佛在后防线上。我猜想那里可能是一个主要的误解。然后从日本晶Nagata笑着走进来,同乔治厨师来自加拿大。当他们进行了介绍,乔治把手伸到日本的学生。就在那时,然而,所以他的鼻子碰晶向乔治的移动的手。他们互相道歉——另一种文化的错误!
艾哈迈德·阿齐兹,另一个国际学生,来自约旦。我们昨天遇见的时候,他走得很接近我,就像我作了自我介绍。我搬回了一点,但他走得更近了,问一个问题,然后跟我握了握手。从法国来的时候Coulon达琳冲穿过门的时候,她认识的托尼·加西亚的笑脸。他们握了握手,然后吻了对方两颊,因为这是每一个成年人,在法国习俗遇到很多人,他们知道。艾哈迈德Aziz.,恰恰相反,只是点了点头,女孩子。男人从中东和其他穆斯林国家通常会站得很近,他对周围的人通常会说话但不能碰的女人。
当我了解更多的国际朋友,我了解更多的关于这一文化“身体语言”。并非所有文化一样互相问候,也都以相同的方式舒适用触摸或距离人民之间的友谊。同样的道理,非语言交际与语言表达他们的感情,他们也有种说不出的“语言”通过使用物理距离,动作或姿态。英国人,例如,通常不站得很近或者触碰陌生人别人只要他们见面。然而,人们从地方像西班牙、意大利或南美国家接触那些紧密联系,更容易接触。现在世界上绝大多数人互握手,但是一些文化使用其他的问候,如日本,谁喜欢的弓。
这些举动不是好或坏,而仅仅是文化发展的方法。我所看到的,然而,肢体语言文化习惯很一般——并不是所有成员的文化行为是相同的。一般来说,学习国际海关一定可以帮助避免困难在当今世界的文化的十字路口。

❺ 高中英语必修4语法

http://wenku..com/view/825b90d233d4b14e852468d6.html
在网络抄文库里找到好多那

❻ 高中英语必修4的语法有哪些还有有哪些必背的词组

高中英语必修知识点讲解
必修4 Unit1 Women of achievement知识点讲解
重点词汇
1. achieve
【课文原句】She has achieved everything she wanted to do… (P3)
【名师点拨】achieve v. 意为“完成;达到”,指经过长期努力而达到某目标、地位或标准等。其名词形式为achievement,意为“成就;功绩”,a sense of achievement可指“成就感”。如:
He had finally achieved success.
Even a small success gives you a sense of achievement.
2. condition
【课文原句】She helped improve prison conditions and gave prisoners work and ecation. (P1)
【名师点拨】condition 意为“环境;境况;条件”时,是可数名词,常用复数形式conditions;意为“状态;状况”时,是不可数名词,be in good condition表示“处于良好的状态”,be out of condition表示“健康状况不佳”。如:
We should pay more attention to the poor living under the bad conditions.
The astronauts soon got used to the condition of weightlessness.
My car is old but in good condition.
He is overweight and out of condition.
【知识拓展】condition意为“条件”时,常用短语on condition that,表示“如果;在……条件下”;在美国英语中,也经常用under the condition that。如:
I will come on condition that Peter is invited.
They agreed under the condition that the matter be dealt with quickly.
3. devote
【课文原句】She devoted all her life to medical work for Chinese women and children. (P1)
【名师点拨】devote vt. 意为“投入于;献身”,其宾语后常与介词to搭配,to后接名词、代词或动名词。devote … to … 意为“献身;致力于”,指把自己、时间、精力等奉献给某种工作或事业。如:
He has devoted his whole life to benefiting mankind.
The girl, to whom he was devoted, died in a traffic accident by chance.
After he has retired, he will devote himself to gardening.
4. behave
【课文原句】Jane has studied these animals for many years and helped people understand how much they behave like humans. (P2)
【名师点拨】behave vi & vt. 意为“举动;举止;行为表现”,如behave well / badly等。其名词形式为behaviour,指“行为;态度;举止”。如:
The parents encouraged the children to behave well in front of the guests.
My camera has been behaving well since it was repaired.
Everyone praises the children's good behaviour.
5. worthwhile
【课文原句】But the evening makes it all worthwhile. (P2)
【名师点拨】worthwhile adj.意为“值得做的;值得出力的”,可作表语或定语。be worthwhile to do / doing sth表示“值得做……”,在动词-ing形式的结构中,worthwhile有时可以用来替代worth,特别是在表示“值得花时间”这一概念时。如:
I think teaching school is always a worthwhile job.
The book referred to by the professor is worthwhile / worth reading.
6. observe
【课文原句】Jane spent many years observing and recording their daily activities. (P2)
【名师点拨】observe vt. 意为“观察;观测;遵守”,可用observe sb do sth,observe + that从句。其名词形式为observation。如:
I observed the man who murdered the boy enter the shop.
He observed that we should probably have rain.
Most information was collected by direct observation of the animals’ behaviour.
7. argue
【课文原句】She has argued for them to be left in the wild and not used for entertainment or advertisements. (P2)
【名师点拨】argue作动词时,意为“争论;争吵;争辩”。argue for意为“为……辩护”;argue with sb about / over sth指“就某事和某人争论”;argue against意为“据理反对;争辩……”。如:
It is no use arguing for the plan because it has been rejected.
We are always arguing with each other about money.
Father argued fiercely against any increase in expenditure for the children’s annual party.
【知识拓展】argue的名词形式为argument,意为“争论;争端;论证”,常构成短语settle an argument指“解决争端”。
9. care for
【课文原句】It was a small book explaining how to cut the death rate from having and caring for babies by following some rules for keeping babies clean and healthy. (P6)
【名师点拨】care for可以表示look after的意思,意为“照顾;照料”,且较正式;也可表示“喜欢”的意思。如:
His son cared for him when he was ill.
In fact, I don’t really care for basketball.
另外,在上面的句子中,explain意为“解释,说明”,后可接名词、代词、从句或wh + to do作宾语,可用explain sth to sb或explain to sb sth。如:
Will you explain to us how we can finish the work as soon as possible?
【知识拓展】care about意为“介意;在乎”,表示是否认为某事是重要的,某事是否引起了某人的兴趣或使其忧虑。最常用于疑问句或否定句中。about用在宾语前面,但是在连词前面一般省掉。
I don’t care about your opinion.
I don’t care whether it rains — I’m happy.
10. intend
【课文原句】I looked carefully at the text and realised that it was intended for women who lived in the countryside. (P6)
【名师点拨】intend v. 意为“打算;计划;想要”。intend to do sth意为“想干某事”;intend后也可以接动词-ing形式或that从句。intend for表示“原打算给某人;准备让……干……”。如:
I intended to come to your house last night but it rained.
I intend coming / to come back soon.
He hadn’t really intended that they should be there.
This gift is intended for you.
热点语法
主谓一致用法难点小结:
一、集合名词作主语时的主谓一致。
1. 集合名词有family, team, group, party, class, public, club, crew, crowd, enemy, audience, company, committee, government, population等,当被看作一个整体时,表示单数意义,谓语动词用单数形式;如果这些集合名词指其中的每个成员,表示复数意义,谓语动词则用复数形式。即谓语动词的单复数要与主语的含义相一致。如:
My class is a big one, including thirty boys and thirty girls.
My class are working hard for the coming exam.
2. 有些集合名词作主语时,谓语只能用复数形式,如:people, the police, the military, mankind, cattle等。如:
The police are searching for the lost child.
二、不定代词作主语时的主谓一致。
不定代词anyone, anybody, anything, everyone, everybody, everything, someone, somebody, no one, nobody, nothing, each, the other等作主语时,谓语动词用单数。如:
Everything goes well with me.
Each of the students in our class has an English-Chinese dictionary.
三、“名词+名词”作主语时的主谓一致。
当表示同一人物或观点时,谓语动词用单数。如:A novelist and playwright is coming to our school. 这里表示“一位小说家兼剧作家”,是同一个人,所以谓语动词用单数。
如果是A novelist and a playwright作主语,这时表示“一位小说家和一位剧作家”,是两个人,所以谓语动词用复数,该句应改为:A novelist and a playwright are coming to our school.
四、The + adj.作主语时的主谓一致。
当The + adj.表示抽象的含义时,谓语动词用单数。如:The beautiful is the true.
当The + adj.表示该类全体的含义时,谓语动词用复数。如:The rich should help the poor.
必修4 Unit 2 Working the land 知识点讲解
Unit2 Working the land
Phrases and Idioms
1. be satisfied (with): pleased because you have got what you want
1) Jane isn't quite satisfied with the way the barber cut her hair.
2) If you are not completely satisfied, you can get your money back.
3) I am not really satisfied with the job you did.
2. refer to : a) mention or speak about someone or something
b) to look at a hook map, piece of paper, etc, for information
1) We agreed never to refer to the matter again.
2) Although she didn't mention any names, everyone knew who she was referring to.
3) He gave the speech without referring to his notes even once.
3. would rather: used to say what someone prefers
1) It seems you would rather play than work.
2)She would rather die than lose the children.
3) I would rather starve than be dependent on anyone again.
4. thanks to sb/ sth : because of sb./ sth.
1) I was late thanks to the heavy traffic.
2) It was thanks to his advice that I succeeded.
3) We've collected $50,000 for the poor, thanks to the generosity of the public.
5. rid of sb/sth: become free of
1) Will science- finally rid us of this disease?
2) Do you think it possible to rid the world of nuclear weapons?
3) By working hard day and night, she is trying to rid herself of loneliness and sadness.
6. lead a ...life: live in the way what you life is like
1) Before liberation, my grandpa led a dog's life.
2) If the operation succeeds, the patient will be able to lead a normal life.
3) Mrs. Black is retired and leads a quiet and peaceful life in a mountain village.
7. care about: love; be interested in; be concerned with
1) Just listening to somebody shows you care about them.
2) Your parents are only doing this because they care about you.
3) The only thing this rich- and greedy man seems to care about is money.
8. insist on sth/doing sth: to demand that something must be done or that you must have a particular thing
1) The school insists on good behaviour from its students.
2) John insisted on doing all the work himself, though he was in poor health.
3) The old man insisted on helping me find a taxi even though I told him I didn't need any help.
必修4 Unit3 A taste of humor 知识点讲解
Unit3重点汇集
1. content
【课文原句】Perhaps it makes us feel more content with our life because we feel there is someone else worse off than ourselves. (P17)
【名师点拨】content adj.意为“满足的;满意的”,be content to do意为“乐意去做某事”;be content with sb / sth意为“对某人或某事感到满意”,相当于be pleased with或be satisfied with。如:
I’m content to help you to set up a website on the Internet.
Those who are not content with the progress they have made will have greater success.
注:worse off是badly off的比较级,意思是“境况比……更差”;better off意为“境况比……好”。如:
To my surprise, I found his living conditions were much worse off than mine.
With the development of economy, more and more people are better off.
【知识拓展】content还可作动词,意为“使满足”;作名词时,表示“满足;心满意足”,也可表示“(书、报纸等的)内容;目录;含量”。如:
My explanation seemed to content him.
Now she began to live in peace and content.
We've discussed the unusual form of the book — now, what about the content?

❼ 高一英语外研版必修四第四单元cultural corner

高一英语外研版必修四第四单元cultural corner原文及翻译:

Rockets
Todayrockets are very advanced machines which we can use to send astronauts intospace. They are also used in firework displays to celebrate great events, suchas the end of the Olympic Games or the beginning of the new millennium inthe year 2000.
Rocketswere probably invented by accident about 2,000 years ago. The Chinese had aform of gunpowderwhich was put in bamboo tubes and thrown into fires to make explosions ringfestivals. Perhaps some of the tubes jumped out of the fireinstead of exploding in it. The Chinese discovered that the gas escaping fromthe tube could lift it into the air. The idea of the rocket wasborn.
Thefirst military use of rockets was in 1232. The Song Dynasty was at war with theMongols. During the battle of Kaifeng, the Song army shot "arrows offlying fire".The tubes were attached to a long stick which helped keep the rocketmoving in a straightdirection. Soon the Mongols learned how to make rockets themselves and it ispossible that they introced them to Europe. Between the 13th and 15thcenturies there were many rocketexperiments in England, France and Italy. They were used for military purposes.One Italian scientist even invented a rocketwhich could travel over the surface ofwater and hit an enemy ship.
But not everybody wanted to use rocketsin battles. Wan Hu, a Chinese government official, invented a flying chair. Heattached two big kites to the chair, and 47 rockets to the kites. The rocketswere lit, there was a huge explosion andclouds of thick smoke. When the smoke cleared Wan Hu and his chair haddisappeared. No one knows what happened. Did Wan Hu die in the explosion? Orwas he carried miles into space, becoming the world's first astronaut?
火箭
今天,火箭是我们用来将宇航员送入太空的非常先进的机器。它们也被用在庆祝重大事件的焰火表演中,像奥运会的闭幕式或2000年新千年的开始。
火箭很可能是在大约两千年前被偶然发明出来的。中国人有一种装在竹管里的火药,这种火药是节日中被用来扔进火里爆炸的。也许一些竹管从火堆里蹿了出来,而不是在里面炸开。中国人发现从竹管里释放出来的气体可以使其飞向空中。于是关于火箭的想法诞生了。
火箭第一次被用于军事上是在1232年。那时宋朝正与蒙古作战。在开封战役中,宋军射出了“飞火箭”。这些竹管被绑到一根长棍上,这根长棍可帮助火箭沿笔直的方向飞行。不久,蒙古人学会了怎样自己制造火箭,并且可能是他们将其引入欧洲的。在13世纪到15世纪期间,在英国、法国和意大利有很多关于火箭的实验。它们都用于军事目的。一个意大利科学家甚至发明了一种可以飞过水面打中敌舰的火箭。
但并不是每个人都想将火箭用于战争。一个名叫万户的中国官员发明了一种“飞椅”。他把两个大风筝绑到椅子上,又把47个火箭绑在风筝上。火箭被点燃了,发生了巨大的爆炸,出现了厚厚的浓烟。当烟雾消散时,万户和他的椅子已经不见了。没有人知道发生了什么。万户被炸死了?还是他被载入了数英里远的太空而成为世界上第一个宇航员了呢?

❽ 高一英语必修四语法

主谓一致是指:
1) 语法形式上要一致,即单复数形式与谓语要一致。
2) 意义上要一致,即主语意义上的单复数要与谓语的单复数形式一致。
3) 就近原则,即谓语动词的单复形式取决于最靠近它的词语,

一般来说,不可数名词用动词单数,可数名词复数用动词复数。
There is much water in the thermos.
但当不可数名词前有表示数量的复数名词时,谓语动词用复数形式。
Ten thousand tons of coal were proced last year.

并列结构作主语时谓语用复数

Reading and writing are very important.

注意: 当主语由and连结时,如果它表示一个单一的概念,即指同一人或同一物时,谓语动词用单数,and 此时连接的两个词前只有一个冠词。
The iron and steel instry is very important to our life.

典型例题
The League secretary and monitor ___ asked to make a speech at the meeting.
A. is B. was C. are D. were
答案B. 注: 先从时态上考虑。这是过去发生的事情应用过去时,先排除A.,C.。本题易误选D,因为The League secretary and monitor 好象是两个人,但仔细辨别, monitor 前没有the,在英语中,当一人兼数职时只在第一个职务前加定冠词。后面的职务用and 相连。这样本题主语为一个人,所以应选B。

主谓一致中的靠近原则

1)当there be 句型的主语是一系列事物时,谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一致。
There is a pen, a knife and several books on the desk..
There are twenty boy-students and twenty-three girl-students in the class.

2)当either… or… 与neither… nor, 连接两个主语时,谓语动词与最邻近的主语保持一致。 如果句子是由here, there引导,而主语又不止一个时,谓语通常也和最邻近的主语一致。
Either you or she is to go.
Here is a pen, a few envelops and some paper for you.

谓语需用单数

1) 代词each和由every, some, no, any等构成的复合代词作主语,或主语中含有each, every, 谓语需用单数。
Each of us has a tape-recorder.
There is something wrong with my watch.

2) 当主语是一本书或一条格言时,谓语动词常用单数。
The Arabian Night is a book known to lovers of English.
<<天方夜谭>>是英语爱好者熟悉的一本好书。

3) 表示金钱,时间,价格或度量衡的复合名词作主语 时,通常把这些名词看作一个整体,谓语一般用单数。(用复数也可,意思不变。)
Three weeks was allowed for making the necessary preparations.
Ten yuan is enough.

- ing分词 看 参考资料 很详

构词法看这里http://ke..com/view/74735.htm?fr=ala0_1_1

❾ 高中英语必修四语法

what根本不抄能出现在定语从句里。How也是。that代替先行词可以是人也可以是物,在从句里作主语,宾语,表语。which只能代替先行词是物,在从句里作主语,宾语,when 代替先行词是一个时间名词,在从句里做时间状语。where代替先行词是一个地点名词,在从句里作地点状语why代替先行词是一个原因名词,在从句里作原因状语

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