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高中英语非谓语动词语法

发布时间:2021-02-25 18:44:03

A. 高中英语非谓语动词用法还有哪些重要语法

时态记住基本的就可以了,一般时,过去时,完成时,将来时,把主要变形回和变形情况记清楚就答可以了,像那种将来完成时和七个字以上的时态就可以不看了,一般也用不到。语态就是被动语态和虚拟语气。虚拟语气会有些难,一定要搞清楚,被动语态很简单啦,就是个被动~~

B. 高中英语谓语与非谓语动词用法与区别(ω

谓语是句子中的不可缺少的成分,一般是动词,及物动词或不及物动词。如he went to school by bus,went是过去时态,版作谓语。非权谓语是动词的不定时或过去分词短语或现在分词短语,一般是动词对应形式加宾语组成,可以做句子中的主语,状语,定语,宾语,表语等,除开谓语的所有都可能。the book borrowed from library is interesting。borrowed from library过去分词短语做后置定语

C. 高中英语非谓语动词用法

(一)动词不定式:(to)+do,具有名词、形容词、副词的特征。
否定式:not + (to) do
(1)一般式:不定式的一般式所表示的动作与谓语动词动作同时发生或发生在谓语动词动作之后,
例如:
I'm glad to meet you.
He seems to know a lot.
We plan to pay a visit.
He wants to be an artist.
The patient asked to be operated on at once.
The teacher ordered the work to be done.
(2)进行式:不定式的进行式所表示的动作与谓语动词动作同时发生,例如:
The boy pretended to be working hard.
He seems to be reading in his room.
(3)完成式:不定式的完成式表示的动作发生在谓语动词动作之前,例如:
I regretted to have told a lie.
I happened to have seen the film.
He is pleased to have met his friend.
2.不定式的句法功能:
(1)作主语:
To finish the work in ten minutes is very hard.
To lose your heart means failure.
动词不定式短语作主语时,常用it作形式主语,真正的主语不定式置于句后,例如上面两句可用如下形式:
It is very hard to finish the work in ten minutes.
It means failure to lose your heart.
常用句式有:1、It+be+名词+to do。2、It takes sb.+some time+to do。3、It+be+形容词+of sb +to do。4、It+be+形容词+for sb.+to do。常用careless,,clever,good,foolish,honest,kind,lazy,nice,right,silly,stupid,wise,等表示赞扬或批评的形容词,不定式前的sb.可作其逻辑主语。
(2)作表语:
Her job is to clean the hall.
He appears to have caught a cold.
(3)作宾语:
常与不定式做宾语连用的动词有:want, hope, wish, offer, fail, plan, learn, pretend, refuse, manage, help, agree, promise, prefer, 如果不定式(宾语)后面有宾语补足语,则用it作形式宾语,真正的宾语(不定式)后置,放在宾语补足语后面,例如:
Marx found it important to study the situation in Russia.
动词不定式也可充当介词宾语,如:
I have no choice but to stay here.
He did nothing last Sunday but repair his bike.
动词不定式前有时可与疑问词连用,如:
He gave us some advice on how to learn English.
(4)作宾语补足语:
在复合宾语中,动词不定式可充当宾语补足语,如下动词常跟这种复合宾语:want, wish, ask, tell, order, beg, permit, help, advise, persuade, allow, prepare, cause, force, call on, wait for, invite.
此外,介词有时也与这种复合宾语连用,如:
With a lot of work to do, he didn't go to the cinema.
有些动词如make, let, see, watch, hear, feel, have等与不带有to的不定式连用,但改为被动语态时,不定式要加to, 如:
I saw him cross the road.
He was seen to cross the road.
(5)作定语:
动词不定式作定语,放在所修饰的名词或代词后。与所修饰名词有如下关系:
①动宾关系:
I have a meeting to attend.
注意:不定式为不及物动词时,所修饰的名词如果是地点、工具等,应有必要的介词,如:
He found a good house to live in.
The child has nothing to worry about.
What did you open it with?
如果不定式修饰time, place, way,可以省略介词:
He has no place to live.
This is the best way to work out this problem.
如果不定式所修饰名词是不定式动作承受者,不定式可用主动式也可用被动式:
Have you got anything to send?
Have you got anything to be sent?
②说明所修饰名词的内容:
We have made a plan to finish the work.
③被修饰名词是不定式逻辑主语:
He is the first to get here.
(6)作状语:
①表目的:
He worked day and night to get the money.
She sold her hair to buy the watch chain.
注意不定式放句首时,逻辑主语与句子主语要一致:
wrong:To save money, every means has been tried.
right:To save money, he has tried every means.
wrong:To learn English well, a dictionary is needed.
right:To learn English well, he needs a dictionary.
②表结果:
He arrived late to find the train gone.
常用only放在不定式前表示强调:
I visited him only to find him out.
③表原因:
They were very sad to hear the news.
④表程度:
It's too dark for us to see anything.
The question is simple for him to answer.
(7)作独立成分:
To tell you the truth, I don't like the way he talked.
(8)不定式的省略:保留to省略do动词。
If you don't want to do it, you don't need to.
(9)不定式的并列:第二个不定式可省略to。
He wished to study medicine and become a doctor.
(二)动名词:
动名词既具有动词的一些特征,又具有名词的句法功能。
1.动名词的形式: Ving
否定式:not + 动名词
(1)一般式:
Seeing is believing. 眼见为实。
(2)被动式:
He came to the party without being invited.他未被邀请就来到了晚会。
(3)完成式:
We remembered having seen the film. 我们记得看过这部电影。
(4)完成被动式:
He forgot having been taken to Guangzhou when he was five years old.
他忘记五岁时曾被带到广州去过。
(5)否定式:not + 动名词
I regret not following his advice. 我后悔没听他的劝告。
(6)复合结构:物主代词(或名词所有格)+ 动名词
He suggested our trying it once again. 他建议我们再试一次。
His not knowing English troubled him a lot.
他不懂英语给他带来许多麻烦。
2.动名词的句法功能:
(1)作主语:
Reading aloud is very helpful. 朗读是很有好处的。
Collecting stamps is interesting. 集邮很有趣。
当动名词短语作主语时常用it作形式主语。
It's no use quarrelling.争吵是没用的。
(2)作表语:
In the ant city, the queen's job is laying eggs.
在蚂蚁王国,蚁后的工作是产卵。
(3)作宾语:
They haven't finished building the dam. 他们还没有建好大坝。
We have to prevent the air from being polluted.
我们必须阻止空气被污染。
注意动名词既可作动词宾语也可作介词宾语,如上面两个例句。此外,动名词作宾语时,若跟有宾语补足语,则常用形式宾语it,例如:
We found it no good making fun of others. 我们发现取笑他人不好。
要记住如下动词及短语只跟动名词作宾语:
enjoy, finish, suggest, avoid(避免), excuse ,delay, imagine, keep, miss, consider, admit(承认),deny(否认), mind, permit, forbid, practise, risk(冒险), appreciate(感激), be busy, be worth, feel like, can't stand, can't help(情不自禁地), think of, dream of, be fond of, prevent…(from),keep …from, stop…(from),protect…from, set about, be engaged in, spend…(in), succeed in, be used to, look forward to, object to, pay attention to, insist on, feel like
(4)作定语:
He can't walk without a walking-stick. 他没有拐杖不能走路。
Is there a swimming pool in your school? 你们学校有游泳池吗?
(5)作同位语:
The cave, his hiding-place is secret. 那个山洞,他藏身的地方很秘密。
His habit, listening to the news on the radio remains unchanged.
他收听收音机新闻节目的习惯仍未改变。
(三)现在分词:
现在分词既具有动词的一些特征,又具有形容词和副词的句法功能。
1、现在分词的形式:
否定式:not + 现在分词
(1)现在分词的主动语态:现在分词主动语态的一般式表示与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,完成
式表示的动作在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生,常作状语。例如:
They went to the park, singing and talking. 他们边唱边说向公园走去。
Having done his homework, he played basket-ball. 做完作业,他开始打篮球。
(2)现在分词的被动语态:一般式表示与谓语动词同时发生的被动的动作,完成式表示发生在谓语动
词之前的被动的动作。
The problem being discussed is very important. 正在被讨论的问题很重要。
Having been told many times, the naughty boy made the same mistake.
被告诉了好几遍,这个淘气的孩子又犯了同一个错误。
2.现在分词的句法功能:
(1)作定语:现在分词作定语,当分词单独做定语时,放在所修饰的名词前;如果是分词短语做定语
放在名词后。
In the following years he worked even harder.
在后来的几年中,他学习更努力了。
The man speaking to the teacher is our monitor's father.
正与老师谈话的那个人是我们班长的父亲。
现在分词作定语相当于一个定语从句的句法功能,如:in the following years也可用in the years that followed; the man speaking to the teacher可改为the man who is speaking to the teacher.
(2)现在分词作表语:
The film being shown in the cinema is exciting. 正在这家上演的电影很棒。
The present situation is inspiring. 当前的形势鼓舞人心。
be + doing既可能表示现在进行时,也可能是现在分词做表语,它们的区别在于be + doing表示进行的动作是进行时,而表示特征时是系动词be与现在分词构成系表结构。
(3)作宾语补足语:
如下动词后可跟现在分词作宾语补足语:
see, watch, hear, feel, find, get, keep, notice, observe, listen to, look at, leave, catch等。例如:
Can you hear her singing the song in the next room? 你能听见她在隔壁唱歌吗?
He kept the car waiting at the gate. 他让小汽车在门口等着。
(4)现在分词作状语:
①作时间状语:
(While) Working in the factory, he was an advanced worker.
在工厂工作时,他是一名先进工人。
②作原因状语:
Being a League member, he is always helping others. 由于是共青团员,他经常帮助他人。
③作方式状语,表示伴随:
He stayed at home, cleaning and washing. 他呆在家里,又擦又洗。
④作条件状语:
(If) Playing all day, you will waste your valuable time.
要是整天玩,你就会浪费宝贵的时间。
⑤作结果状语:
He dropped the glass, breaking it into pieces. 他把杯子掉了,结果摔得粉碎。
⑥作目的状语:
He went swimming the other day. 几天前他去游泳了。
⑦作让步状语:
Though raining heavily, it cleared up very soon.
虽然雨下得很大,但不久天就晴了。
⑧与逻辑主语构成独立主格:
I waiting for the bus, a bird fell on my head.
我等汽车时,一只鸟落到我头上。
All the tickets having been sold out, they went away disappointedly.
所有的票已经卖光了,他们失望地离开了。
Time permitting, we'll do another two exercises.
如果时间允许,我们将做另两个练习。
有时也可用with (without) +名词(代词宾格)+分词形式
With the lights burning, he fell asleep. 他点着灯睡着了。
⑨作独立成分:
udging from(by) his appearance, he must be an actor.
从外表看,他一定是个演员。
Generally speaking, girls are more careful. 一般说来,女孩子更细心。
(四)过去分词:
过去分词只有一种形式:规则动词由动词原形加词尾-ed构成。不规则动词的过去分词没有统一的规则要求,要一一记住。
过去分词的句法功能:
1.过去分词作定语:
Our class went on an organized trip last Monday. 上周一我们班开展了一次有组织的旅行。
Those elected as committee members will attend the meeting. 当选为委员的人将出席这次会。
注意当过去分词是单词时,一般用于名词前,如果是过去分词短语,就放在名词的后面。过去分词做定语相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。
2.过去分词作表语:
The window is broken. 窗户破了。
They were frightened at the sad sight. 他们对眼前悲惨的景象感到很害怕。
注意:be + 过去分词,如果表示状态是系表结构,如果表示被动的动作是被动语态。区别:
The window is broken.(系表)
The window was broken by the boy.(被动)
有些过去分词是不及物动词构成的,不表示被动,只表示完成。如:
boiled water(开水) fallen leaves(落叶)
newly arrived goods(新到的货) the risen sun(升起的太阳)
the changed world(变了的世界)
这类过去分词有:gone, come, fallen, risen, changed, arrived, returned, passed等。
3.过去分词作宾语补足语:
I heard the song sung several times last week.
上周我听见这首歌被唱了好几次。
有时过去分词做with短语中的宾语补足语:
With the work done, they went out to play. 工作做完了,他们出去玩去了。
4.过去分词作状语:
Praised by the neighbours, he became the pride of his parents.
受到邻居们的表扬,他成为父母的骄傲。(表示原因)
Once seen, it can never be forgotten.
一旦它被看见,人们就忘不了。(表示时间)
Given more time, I'll be able to do it better.
如果给予更多的时间,我能做得更好。(表示条件)
Though told of the danger, he still risked his life to save the boy.
虽然被告之有危险,他仍然冒生命危险去救那个孩子。(表示让步)
Filled with hopes and fears, he entered the cave. 心中充满了希望与恐惧,他走进山洞。

D. 高中英语语法题 非谓语动词

呵呵 这道题我高三的时候做了很多遍
很经典的一个版语法点
因为权这题因为有with 那么必须填faced 因为be faced with 表示面对。。。。固定短语
但是如果句子没有when 没有with 直接是填face的某种形式 那么就是facing喔 做伴随状语

希望对你有所帮助 祝楼主进步哈
亲~!新年快乐哈
如果满意~亲 记得采纳~\(≧▽≦)/~啦啦啦

E. 高中英语语法填空 谓语动词和非谓语动词怎么判断 怎么写

谓语动词是组成句子的其中之一主干,要通过句子的结构来判断句子是否缺谓语内;
非谓语动词一般是作宾语容和状语,作宾语的话要看看前面那个动词的搭配,例如,decide后面一般是decide to do sth, enjoy doing sth, finish doing sth等等。
判断时态可以通过句子的时间状语或者上下文所提示的时间状语来判断。

F. 高中英语语法,非谓语动词

帮忙分析一下这个句子的成分(比如说being made to do做什么成分,it指代什么,so that是什么词性之专类),书上说这是强属调句型,(但我有点疑问)因为不是说假如是强调句式的话去掉it was和that句子仍然成立么……这显然不是么……
It was him being made to do so that made Jim very angry.
答:原句是His being made to do so made Jim very angry.
译:他(的)被迫这样做事(这事)使得吉姆很生气。
析:这是人工考句,不仅翻译成汉语意思难懂,英语句子本身也不是一个什么好句子。纯为出题而编,加上你又打错了字。动名词的逻辑主语用物主代词引出,只有少数句型中可以用宾格代替如:Do you mind his/ him opening the door?
这句话我再用主动句来翻译一下:强迫他这样做,吉姆很生气。
对此句的主语-动名词短语进行强调,就是:
It was his being made to do so that made jim very angry.

G. 高中英语中的非谓语动词的语法有

高中英语之难点 ---非谓语动词的复习
语法教学材料:非谓语动词
动词的非谓语形式有三种:不定式、动名词和分词. (一)不定式
不定式由“ to十动词原形”构成,其否定形式是“ not to do”.不定式可以带宾语或状语构成不定式短语,没有人称和数的变化,但有时态和语态的变化.不定式可作主语、宾语、状语、表语和定语,但不能单独作谓语.不定式的逻辑主语有时用“ for十名词或代词宾格”构成.
1.不定式的用法:
l)作主语.不定式短语作主语时,往往放在谓语之后,用 it作形式主语.例如:
To see is to believe.
It is right to give up smoking.
2)作宾语.不定式短语作宾语时,如果还带有宾语补足语。往往把不定式宾语放在宾语补足语之后,而用 it作形式宾语.例如:
He wanted to go.
I find it interesting to study work with him.
3)作宾语补足语.例如:
He asked me to do the work with him.
注意 :在 feel,hear,listen to,look at,notice, observe,see,watch,have,let,make等词后的补足语中,不定式不带 to.但是这些句子如果变成被动结构时,就必须带 to.例如
I often hear him sing the song.
He is often heard to sing the song.
注意:不定式动词在介词 but,except,besides后面时,如果这些介词之前有行为动词 do的各种形式,那么,这些介词后的不定式不带 to,否则要带 to.如:
She could do nothing but cry.
What do you like to do besides swim?
I have no choice but to go.
4)作定语.例如:
I have some books for you to read. 注①作定语的不定式如果是不及物动词,或者不定式所修饰的名词或代词是不定式动作的地点、工具等,不定式后面须有相应的介词.例如:
He is looking for a room to live in.
There is nothing to worry about.
Please give me a knife to cut with.
但是,不定式所修饰的名词如果是 time,place或 way,不定式后面的介词习惯上要省去.例如:
He had no money and no place to live.
注②当作定语的不定式所修饰的名词或代词是不定式动作的承受者时,不定式既可以用主动语态,也可用被动语态,但其含义有所不同.试比较:
A) Have you anything to send?
你有什么东西要寄吗?
(不走式 to send的动作执行者是 you)
B) Have you anything to be sent?
你有什么要(我或别人)寄的东西吗?(不定式 to be sent的动作执行者是已被省略的 me或 someone else)
5)作状语,表示目的、原因、结果或条件.例如:
I came here to see you.(目的)
We were very excited to hear the news.(原因)
He hurried to the school to find nobody there.(结果)
To look at him, you would like him.(条件)
目的状语还可以用 in order to或 so as to来表示.如:
In order to pass the exam, he worked very hard.
We ran all the way so as not to be late.
不定式也可在作表语用的形容词后面作状语.例如:
I am very glad to hear it.
The question is difficult to answer.
“ too十形容词或副词十不定式”作状语.例如:
He is too old to do that.
另外句子中有 enough这个词时,常用不定式作状语.例如:
The room is big enough to hold us.
6)作表语.例如:
My job is to help the patient.
7)作独立成分.例如:
To tell the truth, I don’t agree with you.
8)不定式与疑问词 who,which,when,where,how,what等连用,在句中起名词作用,可充当主语、表语、宾语等.例如:
He didn’t know what to say.(宾语)
How to solve the problem is very important.(主语)
My question is when to start. (表语)
注意:在与 why连用时,只用于 why或 why not开头的简短疑问句中,后面紧跟的动词不定式不带 to.例如:
Why not have a rest?
9)不定式在句中用主动式还是被动式。多数情况下是容易判别的,但有时的确比较复杂,请注意以-下几点:
A)不定式修饰的名词或代词和不定式逻辑上构成主谓关系时,不定式往往用主动形式.
Have you got a key to unlock the door?
(A key unlocks the door.)
B)不定式和它前面被修饰的名词或代词构成逻辑上的动宾关系,又和该句主语构成逻辑上的主谓关系时,不定式常用主动形式.
I have got a letter to write.( I write letter.)
He needs a room to live in.( He lives in a room.)
I know what to do.( I do what.)但这句如改为下列形式,不定式就得用被动形式: I know what is to be done.
这是因为 what is to be done是宾语从句,从句中的主语 what是动词 do的动作对象
C)不定式作表语形容词的状语,和句中主语构成逻辑上的动宾关系时,不定式多用主动形式,这是因为人们往往认为形容词后者去了 for one或 for people.例如:
He is hard to talk to.( to talk to him.)
The book is difficult to understand.( to understand the book.)
但如果强调句中的受事者时,亦可用不定式被动式,例如:
The handwriting is very difficult to be read.
The box is too heavy to be lifted.
D)在 there十 be的结构中,当说话人考虑的是必须有人去完成某件事时,不定式用主动形式,如果说话人强调的是事情本身必须完成,则用被动形式.
There is a lot of work to do.( Somebody has to do the work.)
There is a lot of work to be done. ( The work has to be done.)
请注意下面两个句子的含义是不同的:
There is nothing to do.意为无事可做,感到十分乏味.
There is nothing to be done.意为某东西坏了,无法使之恢复正常.
2.不定式的时态
l)不定式的一般形式所表示的动作,通常与谓语的动作(状态)同时(或几乎同时)发生,或是在它之后发生.例如:
I saw him go out.
2)如果谓语表示的动作(情况)发生时,不定式表示的动作正在进行,这时不定式就要用进行式.例如:
I am very glad to be working with you.
3)如果不定式的动作发生在谓语动词之前,就要用完成式.例如:
I’m sorry to have kept you waiting.
3.不定式的语态
当不定式逻辑上的主语是这个不定式所表示的动作的承受者时,不定式一般要用被动形式。例如: He asked to be sent to work in the countryside. It is possible for our hopes to be realized. (二)动名词
1.动名词由动词十 ing构成;具有动词和名词的性质;在句中起名词作用,可作主语、宾语、表语和定语.
1)作主语.例如:
Seeing is believing.
Laying eggs is the ant queen’s full- time job.
It is no use arguing with him.
注意:动名词和不定式都可以作主语,动名词作主语表示一般或抽象的多次性行为,不定式作主语往往表示具体的或一次性的动作.例如:
Playing with fire is dangerous.(泛指玩火)
To play with fire will be dangerous.(指一具体动作)
但在 It is no use/ good,not any use/ good,useless等后必需用动名词。
2)作表语.例如:
Her job is teaching.
3)作宾语.例如:
He is fond of playing football.
I like swimming.
注① admit,appreciate,avoid,consider, delay, dislike,enjoy,escape, excuse,face,feel. like,finish,forgive,give up, imagine,include,keep,mention,mind,miss,practise,put off,resist, risk,suggest,can’t help,can’t stand(无法忍受)等动词后可以用动名词作宾语,但不能用不定式.
注② forget,go on,like,mean,regret,remember,stop,try等动词可带动名词或不定式作宾语,但意义上有区别。
I remember doing the exercise. (我记得做过练习.)
I must remember to do it. (我必须记着做这事.)
I tried not to go there.(我没法不去那里.)
I tried doing it again. (我试着又干了一次.)
Stop speaking. (不要讲话。)
He stopped to talk. (他停下来讲话.)
I mean to come early today. (我打算今早些来.)
Missing the train means waiting for another hour.
(误了这趟火车意味着再等一个小时.)
注③在 allow,advise,forbid,permit等动词后直接跟动词作宾语时,要用动名词形式,如果后面有名词或代词作宾语,然后再跟动词作宾语补足语时,其宾语补足语用带 to的不定式.例如:
We don’t allow smoking here.
We don' t allow students to smoke.
注④动词 need,require,want作“需要”解,其后跟动词作它的宾语时,必须用动名词,或不定式的被动式.这时,动名词的主动式表示被动意义.例如:
The window needs( requires,wants) cleaning( to be cleaned)
注⑤在短语 devote to,look forward to,stick to,to be used to,object to,thank you for,excuse me for,be( kept) busy,be worth,have difficulty/ trouble/ problem (in),have a good/ wonderful/ hard time(in),there’s no use/good/ need,feel/ look/seem/ like/get down to等后的动词也必须用动名词形式.例如:
I look forward to hearing from you soon.
注⑥在 love,hate,prefer等动词后用动名词或不定式无多大区别。
但说话人有所指的时候,通常用不定式。
注⑦start,begin,continue在书面语中多后接动名词,在口语中多后接不定式。
注⑧在 should(would) like/ love等后须用不定式。
4)作定语.例如:
He has a reading room.
2.动名词的复合结构
动名词的复合结构由物主代词或人称代词宾格,名词所有格或普通格加动名词构成.在句子开头必须用名词所有格或物主代词.例如:
His coming made me very happy.
Mary’s crying annoyed him.
She didn’t mind his crying.
Is there any hope fo Xiao Wang’s winning.
3.动名词的时态和语态.
l)动名词的时态
动名词的时态分一般式和完成式两种,如果动名词的动作没有明确地表示出时间是与谓语动词同时发生或在谓语动作以前发生,用动名词的一般式.例如:
We are interested in playing chess.
His coming will be of great help to us.
如果动名词的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前,通常用动名词的完成时态。例如:
I’m sorry for not having kept my promise.
但是在某些动词或词组后,常用动名词的一般形式,尽管其动作是在谓语所表示的动作之前发生的.例如:主语是这个动名词表示的动作的对象时,动名词用被动语态.被动语态由“ being十过去分词”或“ having been十过去分词”构成。后一种一般避免使用.例如:
He likes being helped.
注:在 to be worth doing句型中,动名词 doing表示的是被动意义.例如:
The book is worth reading.(三)分词
1.分词的时态和语态
l)分词分为现在分词和过去分词。现在分词有一般式和完成式.一般式表示和谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生的行为;完成式(having十过去分词)表示在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生的动作.例如:
Being a student,he was interested in books.
2)现在分词有一般式和完成式,且有主动语态和被动语态,当句子的主语是分词动作的承受者时,分词用被动语态,如果要强调分词的动作先于谓语动作,就用分词完成式的被动形式.例如:
The question being discussed is important:
过去分词表示在谓语动词之前发生的动作,本身有被动的含义,所以只有一般式没有完成式.
2.分词的用法
l)作定语
分词短语做定语时,放在被修饰的名词之后;单个分词做定语时,放在被修饰的名词之前.例如:
The man standing by the window is our teacher.
注意:现在分词作定语时,它表示的动作是正在进行或与谓语动词所表示的动作几乎同时发生,如果两个动作有先有后,一般不能用现在分词作定语,而要用定语从句。例如:
The teacher criticized the student who had broken the window.
现在分词作定语的差异:
现在分词在句中作定语时,不仅存在前置与后置的区别,而且存在状态、时间与形式上的差异。为了帮助大家分清这些差异,更好地掌握现在分词的用法,现在分别论述如下。
一、状态差异
现在分词作定语明显存在状态差异。一般来讲,前置的现在分词静感强。而后置现在分词动感强。学习时要注意体会这一点。
例:The labouring people are the wisest.
例:The farmers labouring here are not afraid of snakes.
能前置的现在分词为数不太多,常见的大都是已被形容词化了的现在分词。这一点主要表现在有些现在分词前常有程度副词,有些现在分词甚至还有比较等级。
例: I have brought very exciting news to you.
例:This is the most exciting story that I have ever read.
二、时间差异
时间差异指现在分词表示的动作发生的时间差异。有些现在分词作定语时表示正在的动作。这些现在分词若改为定语从句宜用进行时态。
例:Did you tell the children playing there not to make any noise?
noise?
例:The American president visiting China now will return on Saturday.
有些现在分词作定语时则表示经常性动作或现在(或当时)的状态。此类现在分词若改为定语从句宜用一般时态,而不宜用进行时态。若译成汉语也应注意体现这一点。
例:They stayed at a hotel standing by the lake.
三、形式差异
从形式来看,前置现在分词多为单个分词,而后置现在分词多为短语。换句话说,若用现在分词作定语,单个分词要前置,分词短语要后置。但也不能绝对如此,要视情况而定。要是强调动感,即使是单个分词也应后置。
例:Look! The girl singing is Alice and the one dancing is Mary.
从内容来讲,前置现在分词多为不及物动词,没有自己的宾语或状语。后置现在分词可带宾语或状语。有时前置现在分词也可有自己的宾语或状语,不过要置于分词前,且中间要有连词符号。当然,带比较级时除外。
例Barking dogs seldom bite.
例 The person translating the songs can speak seven languages.
值得说明的是,现在分词的完成式与被动式一般都不能用作前置定语,只能作后置定语,使用时应慎重。
例 We must keep a secret of the things being discussed here.
2)作状语
分词或分词短语作状语时,可以表示时间、原因、行为方式、伴随状况等。例如:
Being a student, I must study hard.(原因)
While reading the book, he nodded from time to time.(时间)
The teacher stood there surrounded by the students.(方式) 注:①分词短语作状语时,其逻辑主语必须与句子的主语一致.
注:②表示时间关系的分词短语有时可由连接词 while或 when引出.
注:③有时“with( without)十名词(或代词宾格)十分词”的结构,表示伴随状况.例如:
He lay half dead,with all his ribs broken. 注:④当分词的逻辑主语与主句的主语不同时:分词必须有自己的主语.例如:
Time permitting, I will finish another lesson.
3)作表语.例如:
The news is inspiring.
4)作宾语补足语.例如: We saw the teacher making the experiement. 注意:在 see,hear,watch,feel,observe,have,listen to,notice等动词后,既可以用现在分词构成复合宾语,也可以用不定式构成复合宾语,但两者的含义是有差别的,用现在分词,表示动作正在发生,(即处于发生的过程中,还没有结束),用不定式表示动作发生了,(即动作全过程结束了)。例如:
I saw the girl getting on the tractor.
He had his clothes washed. (他叫别人洗了衣服)
注意:“ have十宾语十现在分词”表示主体使客体处于某状态或干什么事;“ have十宾语十过去分词”表示动作是别人做的或与主体意志无关

H. 高中英语非谓语动词讲解

一、非谓语动词种类及句法功能
(一)概述:
在英语中,不作句子谓语,而具有除谓语外其他语法功能的动词,叫做非谓语动词。非谓语动词有动词不定式(the Infinitive);动名词(the Gerund);现在分词(the Present Participle);过去分词(the Past Participle)。
1.非谓语动词与谓语动词的相同点有:
(1)如果是及物动词都可与宾语连用,例如:
They built a garden.
They suggested building a garden.
(2)都可以被状语修饰:
The suit fits him very well.
The suit used to fit him very well.
(3)都有主动与被动, “体”式(一般式;进行式;完成式)的变化。例如:
He was punished by his parents.(谓语动词被动语态)
He avoided being punished by his parents.(动名词的被动式)
We have written the composition.(谓语动词的完成时)
Having written the composition, we handed it in.(现在分词的完成式)
(4)都可以有逻辑主语
They started the work at once.(谓语动词的逻辑主语)
The boss ordered them to start the work.(动词不定式的逻辑主语)
We are League members.(谓语动词的主语)
We being League member, the work was well done.
(现在分词的逻辑主语)
2、非谓语动词与谓语动词的不同点有:
(1)非谓语动词可以有名词作用(如动词不定式和动名词),在句中做主语、宾语、表语。
(2)非谓语动词可以有形容词作用(如动词不定式和分词),在句中做定语、表语或宾语补足语。
(3)非谓语动词可以有副词作用(如动词不定式和分词),在句中作状语。
(二)非谓语动词的句法功能:

二、非谓语动词用法:
(一)动词不定式:(to)+do,具有名词、形容词、副词的特征。
1.不定式的形式:(以动词write为例)

否定式:not + (to) do
(1)一般式:不定式的一般式所表示的动作与谓语动词动作同时发生或发生在谓语动词动作之后,
例如:
I'm glad to meet you.
He seems to know a lot.
We plan to pay a visit.
He wants to be an artist.
The patient asked to be operated on at once.
The teacher ordered the work to be done.
(2)进行式:不定式的进行式所表示的动作与谓语动词动作同时发生,例如:
The boy pretended to be working hard.
He seems to be reading in his room.
(3)完成式:不定式的完成式表示的动作发生在谓语动词动作之前,例如:
I regretted to have told a lie.
I happened to have seen the film.
He is pleased to have met his friend.
2.不定式的句法功能:
(1)作主语:
To finish the work in ten minutes is very hard.
To lose your heart means failure.
动词不定式短语作主语时,常用it作形式主语,例如上面两句可用如下形式:
It is very hard to finish the work in ten minutes.
It means failure to lose your heart.
(2)作表语:
Her job is to clean the hall.
He appears to have caught a cold.
(3)作宾语:
常与不定式做宾语连用的动词有:want, hope, wish, offer, fail, plan, learn, pretend, refuse, manage, help, agree, promise, prefer, 如果不定式(宾语)后面有宾语补足语,则用it作形式宾语,真正的宾语(不
定式)后置,放在宾语补足语后面,例如:
Marx found it important to study the situation in Russia.
动词不定式也可充当介词宾语,如:
I have no choice but to stay here.
He did nothing last Sunday but repair his bike.
动词不定式前有时可与疑问词连用,如:
He gave us some advice on how to learn English.
(4)作宾语补足语:
在复合宾语中,动词不定式可充当宾语补足语,如下动词常跟这种复合宾语:want, wish, ask, tell, order, beg, permit, help, advise, persuade, allow, prepare, cause, force, call on, wait for, invite.
此外,介词有时也与这种复合宾语连用,如:
With a lot of work to do, he didn't go to the cinema.
有些动词如make, let, see, watch, hear, feel, have等与不带有to的不定式连用,但改为被动语态时,不定式要加to, 如:
I saw him cross the road.
He was seen to cross the road.
(5)作定语:
动词不定式作定语,放在所修饰的名词或代词后。与所修饰名词有如下关系:
①动宾关系:
I have a meeting to attend.
注意:不定式为不及物动词时,所修饰的名词如果是地点、工具等,应有必要的介词,如:
He found a good house to live in.
The child has nothing to worry about.
What did you open it with?
如果不定式修饰time, place, way,可以省略介词:
He has no place to live.
This is the best way to work out this problem.
如果不定式所修饰名词是不定式动作承受者,不定式可用主动式也可用被动式:
Have you got anything to send?
Have you got anything to be sent?
②说明所修饰名词的内容:
We have made a plan to finish the work.
③被修饰名词是不定式逻辑主语:
He is the first to get here.
(6)作状语:
①表目的:
He worked day and night to get the money.
She sold her hair to buy the watch chain.
注意不定式放句首时,逻辑主语与句子主语要一致:
wrong:To save money, every means has been tried.
right:To save money, he has tried every means.
wrong:To learn English well, a dictionary is needed.
right:To learn English well, he needs a dictionary.
②表结果:
He arrived late to find the train gone.
常用only放在不定式前表示强调:
I visited him only to find him out.
③表原因:
They were very sad to hear the news.
④表程度:
It's too dark for us to see anything.
The question is simple for him to answer.
(7)作独立成分:
To tell you the truth, I don't like the way he talked.
(8)不定式的省略:保留to省略do动词。
If you don't want to do it, you don't need to.
(9)不定式的并列:第二个不定式可省略to。
He wished to study medicine and become a doctor.
(二)动名词:
动名词既具有动词的一些特征,又具有名词的句法功能。
1.动名词的形式:

否定式:not + 动名词
(1)一般式:
Seeing is believing. 眼见为实。
(2)被动式:
He came to the party without being invited.他未被邀请就来到了晚会。
(3)完成式:
We remembered having seen the film. 我们记得看过这部电影。
(4)完成被动式:
He forgot having been taken to Guangzhou when he was five years old.
他忘记五岁时曾被带到广州去过。
(5)否定式:not + 动名词
I regret not following his advice. 我后悔没听他的劝告。
(6)复合结构:物主代词(或名词所有格)+ 动名词
He suggested our trying it once again. 他建议我们再试一次。
His not knowing English troubled him a lot.
他不懂英语给他带来许多麻烦。
2.动名词的句法功能:
(1)作主语:
Reading aloud is very helpful. 朗读是很有好处的。
Collecting stamps is interesting. 集邮很有趣。
当动名词短语作主语时常用it作形式主语。
It's no use quarrelling.争吵是没用的。
(2)作表语:
In the ant city, the queen's job is laying eggs.
在蚂蚁王国,蚁后的工作是产卵。
(3)作宾语:
They haven't finished building the dam. 他们还没有建好大坝。
We have to prevent the air from being polluted.
我们必须阻止空气被污染。
注意动名词既可作动词宾语也可作介词宾语,如上面两个例句。此外,动名词作宾语时,若跟有宾语补足语,则常用形式宾语it,例如:
We found it no good making fun of others. 我们发现取笑他人不好。
要记住如下动词及短语只跟动名词作宾语:
enjoy, finish, suggest, avoid(避免), excuse ,delay, imagine, keep, miss, consider, admit(承认),deny(否认), mind, permit, forbid, practise, risk(冒险), appreciate(感激), be busy, be worth, feel like, can't stand, can't help(情不自禁地), think of, dream of, be fond of, prevent…(from),keep …from, stop…(from),protect…from, set about, be engaged in, spend…(in), succeed in, be used to, look forward to, object to, pay attention to, insist on, feel like
(4)作定语:
He can't walk without a walking-stick. 他没有拐杖不能走路。
Is there a swimming pool in your school? 你们学校有游泳池吗?
(5)作同位语:
The cave, his hiding-place is secret. 那个山洞,他藏身的地方很秘密。
His habit, listening to the news on the radio remains unchanged.
他收听收音机新闻节目的习惯仍未改变。
(三)现在分词:
现在分词既具有动词的一些特征,又具有形容词和副词的句法功能。
1、现在分词的形式:

否定式:not + 现在分词
(1)现在分词的主动语态:现在分词主动语态的一般式表示与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,完成
式表示的动作在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生,常作状语。例如:
They went to the park, singing and talking. 他们边唱边说向公园走去。
Having done his homework, he played basket-ball. 做完作业,他开始打篮球。
(2)现在分词的被动语态:一般式表示与谓语动词同时发生的被动的动作,完成式表示发生在谓语动
词之前的被动的动作。
The problem being discussed is very important. 正在被讨论的问题很重要。
Having been told many times, the naughty boy made the same mistake.
被告诉了好几遍,这个淘气的孩子又犯了同一个错误。
2.现在分词的句法功能:
(1)作定语:现在分词作定语,当分词单独做定语时,放在所修饰的名词前;如果是分词短语做定语
放在名词后。
In the following years he worked even harder.
在后来的几年中,他学习更努力了。
The man speaking to the teacher is our monitor's father.
正与老师谈话的那个人是我们班长的父亲。
现在分词作定语相当于一个定语从句的句法功能,如:in the following years也可用in the years that followed; the man speaking to the teacher可改为the man who is speaking to the teacher.
(2)现在分词作表语:
The film being shown in the cinema is exciting. 正在这家上演的电影很棒。
The present situation is inspiring. 当前的形势鼓舞人心。
be + doing既可能表示现在进行时,也可能是现在分词做表语,它们的区别在于be + doing表示进行的动作是进行时,而表示特征时是系动词be与现在分词构成系表结构。
(3)作宾语补足语:
如下动词后可跟现在分词作宾语补足语:
see, watch, hear, feel, find, get, keep, notice, observe, listen to, look at, leave, catch等。例如:
Can you hear her singing the song in the next room? 你能听见她在隔壁唱歌吗?
He kept the car waiting at the gate. 他让小汽车在门口等着。
(4)现在分词作状语:
①作时间状语:
(While) Working in the factory, he was an advanced worker.
在工厂工作时,他是一名先进工人。
②作原因状语:
Being a League member, he is always helping others. 由于是共青团员,他经常帮助他人。
③作方式状语,表示伴随:
He stayed at home, cleaning and washing. 他呆在家里,又擦又洗。
④作条件状语:
(If) Playing all day, you will waste your valuable time.
要是整天玩,你就会浪费宝贵的时间。
⑤作结果状语:
He dropped the glass, breaking it into pieces. 他把杯子掉了,结果摔得粉碎。
⑥作目的状语:
He went swimming the other day. 几天前他去游泳了。
⑦作让步状语:
Though raining heavily, it cleared up very soon.
虽然雨下得很大,但不久天就晴了。
⑧与逻辑主语构成独立主格:
I waiting for the bus, a bird fell on my heard.
我等汽车时,一只鸟落到我头上。
All the tickets having been sold out, they went away disappointedly.
所有的票已经卖光了,他们失望地离开了。
Time permitting, we'll do another two exercises.
如果时间允许,我们将做另两个练习。
有时也可用with (without) +名词(代词宾格)+分词形式
With the lights burning, he fell asleep. 他点着灯睡着了。
⑨作独立成分:
udging from(by) his appearance, he must be an actor.
从外表看,他一定是个演员。
Generally speaking, girls are more careful. 一般说来,女孩子更细心。
(四)过去分词:
过去分词只有一种形式:规则动词由动词原形加词尾-ed构成。不规则动词的过去分词没有统一的规则要求,要一一记住。
过去分词的句法功能:
1.过去分词作定语:
Our class went on an organized trip last Monday. 上周一我们班开展了一次有组织的旅行。
Those elected as committee members will attend the meeting. 当选为委员的人将出席这次会。
注意当过去分词是单词时,一般用于名词前,如果是过去分词短语,就放在名词的后面。过去分词做定语相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。
2.过去分词作表语:
The window is broken. 窗户破了。
They were frightened at the sad sight. 他们对眼前悲惨的景象感到很害怕。
注意:be + 过去分词,如果表示状态是系表结构,如果表示被动的动作是被动语态。区别:
The window is broken.(系表)
The window was broken by the boy.(被动)
有些过去分词是不及物动词构成的,不表示被动,只表示完成。如:
boiled water(开水) fallen leaves(落叶)
newly arrived goods(新到的货) the risen sun(升起的太阳)
the changed world(变了的世界)
这类过去分词有:gone, come, fallen, risen, changed, arrived, returned, passed等。
3.过去分词作宾语补足语:
I heard the song sung several times last week.
上周我听见这首歌被唱了好几次。
有时过去分词做with短语中的宾语补足语:
With the work done, they went out to play. 工作做完了,他们出去玩去了。
4.过去分词作状语:
Praised by the neighbours, he became the pride of his parents.
受到邻居们的表扬,他成为父母的骄傲。(表示原因)
Once seen, it can never be forgotten.
一旦它被看见,人们就忘不了。(表示时间)
Given more time, I'll be able to do it better.
如果给予更多的时间,我能做得更好。(表示条件)
Though told of the danger, he still risked his life

I. 高中英语语法。。非谓语动词

judging by/from 是现在分词作状语 这是固定用法 属于可允许的 分词垂悬 现象
再如Generally speaking, 其逻辑主语是说话内人。

这与独立主格结构不容相干
加上逻辑主语构成 独立主格结构时 根据与逻辑主语的关系可以是judging或judged

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